Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve’s (KSNR)

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Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve’s (KSNR)

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  1. Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve’s (KSNR)

resource management section analysis


Based on the interview and documentary researches, several problems with the resource management subsystem were identified.

Table 1: KSNR’s resource management subsystem findings



Resource Management

Theory

KSNR

Problems

Implication

Resource Monitoring:

  • Soil





Carried out in order with KSNR Development Program, and KSNR Annual Management Plan

  • Water





Carried out in order with KSNR Development Program, and KSNR Annual Management Plan

  • Air





Carried out in order with KSNR Development Program, and KSNR Annual Management Plan

  • Flora





Carried out in order with KSNR Development Program, and KSNR Annual Management Plan

  • Fauna





Carried out in order with KSNR Development Program, and KSNR Annual Management Plan

Resource Management Programs:






Due to Kazakhstani Specially Protected Areas regulations site management is prohibited

  • Overstory Vegetation






Due to Kazakhstani Specially Protected Areas regulations overstory vegetation is prohibited

  • Turf Management






Due to Kazakhstani Specially Protected Areas regulations turf management is prohibited

  • Visual Resource Management






Due to Kazakhstani Specially Protected Areas regulations visual resource management is prohibited

  • Ecosystems (set of organisms and environment of their dwelling) Management





Hazard, anthropogenous pollution of rivers’ basins, overuse of biological resources, facilities and infrastructural problems, weakness of water level control systems causes a big lost of biological species (animals, fishes, birds)

  • Impact Assessment





Basin of river Nura is experiencing a critical situation due to pollution of its waters by heavy metals, mineral oil and other chemical products. Sewage waters throughout tens of kilometres along the river annually carry out the pollutants. The polluted water might have reached the lakes of KSNR and presented potential threat for their inhabitants.

Note: available input

presence of problem

absence of problem

The first column of the table above displays inputs which are considered in management process. These inputs are inhesion for management of all protected areas categories and outdoor recreational places. Therefore, KSNR belongs to Ia category “Strict Nature Reserve”, inputs such as, concession management, area planning, and site planning not considered in KSNR’s management. Second column shows what KSNR has. Third column shows the presence or absence of the problems in listed inputs, which are described bellow in detail. The fourth column provides implication.


Water Control Problems


Periodic changes of water levels in the river, both by natural climate and artificial causes (e.g., manipulation of channels of the river and water detention in artificial water basins), repeats the phenomenon of overflowing and droughty lakes system that negatively influences conditions of the major places of dwelling natatorial and water birds.

Artificial dams were built to maintain optimum water level in the lake, however, due to some technical and financial limitation, quality was not prioritized and the dams often break. Due to this situation, lakes in KSNR experience difficult conditions such as significant drop of the water level in reservoirs that suffocated fishes, and floods that deteriorated colonial birds’ nests.

Deteriorations of the reserved fauna were mainly caused by high tide on springs. During winter, water in the lake basins upstream (e.g., lake Samarkand) froze and gained volume. At the end of the winter, the ice melted and produced higher amount of water. To avoid overflowing, people drained the lake by opening dams to the rivers. This action brought negative influence for the river and lakes at the downstream. Overflowed downstream lakes deteriorated thousands of endangered birds’ nests.

It is necessary to apply modern engineering system to regulate water levels on the lakes in KSNR. It was noticed that downstream flows during the winter led to significant reduction of oxygen in the water, which deteriorates the fisheries. Another problem is the preservation of water mineralization in the lakes. Various water biotas essentially depend on the level of water mineralization. Stable and consistent water mineralization probably can be supported by periodic exchange of water in the lakes. Adjustable water waste constructions are required in this situation.

Meanwhile, the question about preservation of water quality is the general problem on all river basins and can be solved by working out of complex measures on all basins.

Anthropogenous pollution of reservoirs


Currently, basin of river Nura is experiencing a critical situation due to pollution of its waters by heavy metals, mineral oil and other chemical products. Sewage waters throughout tens of kilometres along the river annually carry out the pollutants. The polluted water might have reached the lakes of KSNR and presented potential threat for their inhabitants.

Some hydro chemical researches needs to be done in order to get the knowledge to predict the future ecological condition of the lakes. Despite the researchers might lead to re-planting or re-introducing new species of plants or animals, such activities were considered prohibited by local law. The management perceived that altering according to the law about Special Protected Nature Territories, introduction (installation or other kinds of plants and animals) in protected area is strictly forbidden. For this reason, planting or re-planting in reserve should not take place, even though it was in order to maintain the ecosystems.


Irresponsible Uses of Biological Resources


Extensiveness and remoteness of many sites of reserve (e.g., coastal lines of lake Tengiz) makes it almost impossible for the management to enforce the rule of their protection to the right degree. For example, hunting for birds in lake Tengiz plaits, and fishing in the lake Korgalzhyn are both illegal and it takes co-operations from the visitors not to be involved in such unlawful activities. Since there is no efficient control for the activities of hunting and fishing at local level, this situation led to the deprivation of the local communities that are supposed to have special rights to utilize the resource to some degrees. Often, trespassers with high-performance equipment committed illegal hunting and fishing at KSNR and leave nothing valuable for the local communities.

To some degree, it seemed to be necessary to offer special rights to local communities to utilize the resource around KSNR. Despite the need to enhance the security system, local communities should be involved in maintaining KSNR with the controlled special rights as rewards.



  1. Conclusions

Resource management includes two phases – resource input and the resource management programs. These resource management programs aimed at managing those input. Resource management has problems as follows:

  1. Infrastructural problems

Periodic changes of water levels in the river repeats the phenomenon of overflowing and droughty lakes system that negatively influences conditions of the major places of dwelling natatorium and water birds. Water regulation system of rivers needed to be improved.

  1. Environmental control problems

Sewage waters throughout tens of kilometres along the river annually carry out the pollutants. The polluted water might have reached the lakes of KSNR and presented potential threat for their inhabitants.

  1. Problems in controlling of the recreational facilities

  2. Hunting for birds in lake Tengiz plaits, and fishing in the Lake Kulanotpes are both illegal and it takes co-operations from the visitors not to be involved in such unlawful activities. Since there is no efficient control for the activities of hunting and fishing at local level, this situation led to the deprivation of the local communities that are supposed to have special rights to utilize the resource to some degrees.



  1. Recommendations

Reserve protection can be organized as follows:



  • First, it should be meant to increase number of cordons on perimeter of reserve with a view on strict control penetrations on its territory of poachers and other extraneous persons.

  • Second, it is necessary to supply these cordons with modern monitoring facilities and protection. So, installation of chambers of supervision, and not only on cordons, but also in places most often visited by people, animal and where there are the most valuable kinds of flora and fauna is supposed.

  • Third, it is also necessary to provide inspectors of protection with more modern communication facility, lanterns, transport. Therefore, in the western countries, protection is carried out by special employees and technicians equipped with high-tech instruments. From transport they use during wintertime snowmobile, snowmobiles, and in summer – quadracycle and small off-road cars. Such transport considerably facilitates work of inspectors of protection on investigation of territory of reserve. For water transports, it is possible to use modern boats supplied with a special communication facility and other stock for rendering assistance by the wounded animal and other actions. The same transport can be used for scientific researches and carrying out of excursions.


References:


    1. Alden, H.R. (1973). “Systems for Analyzing Impacts of Outdoor Recreation Programs on Environmental Quality”, Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Quality. Foss, P.O. (ed.). Ft. Collins, CO: Colorado State University.

    2. Jubenville, A. (1993). “Recreational Use of Public Lands: The Role of the Manager”. Journal of Park and Recreational Administration, 3(4): 53-60





KORGALZHYN STATE NATURE RESERVE’S

VISITOR MANAGEMENT SUBSYSTEM



D. Yerimbekkyzy, Dr. Rafee Bin Majid


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

Figure 1. shows the functions of visitor management. Information systems are capable of informing users that they can choose logically between environmental settings and management-influenced sites that best suit their interests. Public safety should be one of the concerns of the management, regardless the kinds of recreational opportunity provided. Therefore, a special public safety program must be provided in each recreational facility. Another important aspect involved is educational aspect; the visitors should gain an advancement of knowledge around the landscape and its functions.



Previous study Chase (1983) concluded that the manager should consider the visitors’ contribution in developing management programs. The visitors’ contributions are as follows:

  1. Needs Hierarchy, described as requirements and expectations of individuals (visitors) on recreational events.

  2. Style of participation, described as ways visitors choose to get involved in provided recreational facilities. There are macro-characteristics or macro-behavioral participations (trophy hunter, meat hunter, and equipment hunter) and micro-behavioral participations (how people travel a wilderness trail, interact with one another, and respond to several environmental influences). Nevertheless, up to recently, there are only few numbers of studies around participants’ micro-behaviour (Mills, 1985).

  3. Visitor Sensation, described as the way people participate based on their feeling of the recreational opportunity prepared by management. It is not only their feelings about the resources such as the lake or surrounding scenes that count, but also their feelings on non-natural provisions such as boating facilities, roads, services, etc. Even when empirical data about this aspect are less available, the manager should be capable to forecast common user response in order to develop suitable programs.



  1. Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve’s (KSNR)

visitor management section analysis


Based on the interview and documentary researches, several problems with the visitor management subsystem were identified.
Table 1: KSNR’s visitor management subsystem findings

Visitor Management

Theory

KSNR

Problems

Implication

Visitor Management Programs:

  • Distribution of Use





There are three eco routs and limited tourist number with special permission and acquaintance of the staffs.

  • Public Safety





There are three eco routs and limited tourist number with special permission and acquaintance of the staffs.

  • Interpretive Programs





Inadequacy of the service and limited quantity of specially allocated sites of territory for acquaintance with the nature. For this reason, independent visits of citizens are seldom to be found. It causes stream of tourists is significantly limited

  • Information Programs





The management would brief the tourists about general information needed to stay in the territory, safety precautions regulations, fire safety, sanitary condition, and how to treat the reserved features. Otherwise it might cause more problems in maintenance management, ecosystem management fields

Understanding the Visitor:




  • Needs Hierarchy





Visitors are satisfied

  • Style of Participation





Visitors are satisfied

  • Visitor Perception





Visitors are satisfied

  • Visitor Motives





Visitors are satisfied

Note: available input

presence of problem

absence of problem

The first column of the table above displays inputs which are considered in management process. These inputs are inhesion for management of all protected areas categories and outdoor recreational places. Therefore, KSNR belongs to Ia category “Strict Nature Reserve”, inputs such as, concession management, area planning, and site planning not considered in KSNR’s management. Second column shows what KSNR has. Third column shows the presence or absence of the problems in listed inputs, which are described bellow in detail. The fourth column provides implication.


Tourism Activities Organizer


Currently, there is no formal position for the tourism organizer in the administrative body, therefore the primary tourism activities were not be prioritized due to the assumptions that tourism might create many problems in the future. To make it worse, there are no accommodation facilities in the regional centre, there are no tourism facilities in nearby settlements, and the society is not involved in any tourism industry utilizing KSNR. For this reason, the potential tourism values of the natural environment remained not exposed to the tourists.

Organizing tourism activities is one of the critical steps to be taken by the management. In spite of the fact that having tourism organizer is included in the management plan, the realisation is still under funding problems. Taking into account of recreational loading, the reserve has no prospect of economic feasibility from ecological tourism without any tour organizer.

The management emphasized that sometimes weather conditions are not friendly with the visitors; therefore, they need better facilities to host the visitors in a sheltered place. However, despite some lack of facilities and organizations, it was indicated that most of the visitors were satisfied by what they experienced in KSNR.

  1. Conclusions


Visitor management helps visitors choose various opportunities or to manipulate visitor use. Visitor management also facing problems as are follows:

  1. Infrastructural problems

Lack of sign/information boards along the tourist routes made it harder for independent visitors to enjoy the existing facilities. Brief the tourists about general information needed to stay in the territory, safety precautions regulations, fire safety, sanitary condition, and how to treat the reserved features are needed.


  1. Visitors’ accommodation problems

There are no accommodations facilities in the regional centre, there are no tourism facilities in nearby settlements. Sometimes weather conditions are not friendly with the visitors; therefore, they need better facilities to host the visitors in a sheltered place

3. Recommendations

For today, information technologies have great value. The given statement concerns and nature reserves. Hence, author suggests to develop an official site of KSNR with the full information on reserve, and data will be both on state – Kazakh, Russian, and in English languages with a view of access to a site of users of other countries of the world. Similar sites have the majority of the well-known reserves and national parks.

Unfortunately, the present rising generation has no sufficient knowledge of our reserves and national parks. The given problems can be solved as follows:


  • It is necessary to organize often-obligatory trips of pupils, lycées, and colleges to the nearest reserves. So excursions and tours in Korgalzhyn reserve.

  • It is possible to organize such tours for inhabitants of Akmolinsky, Karaganda districts and of Astana.

  • Increase of wages to workers of reserve;

  • Payment of awards, rendering of privileges in sphere medical and other service.

It is necessary to pay attention to mutual relations with local population, which uses nature resources in immediate proximity with reserve. Therefore, it is necessary to organize partner relations with local hunters, fishers, farmers with a view of rational consumption of nature riches, and minimization of anxiety living on territory of reserve of animals.

The control is understood as check of activity of reserve, first, as the state organisation financed at the expense of means of the state budget. Secondly, as an object, having huge strategic and nature protection value. Thereby, for the purpose of restriction of use of the means, allocated to reserve, and also the resources of reserve which are objects of protection, to suit the own ends it is necessary to organize the special commissions having as a part of representatives. The state bodies, public organizations and leading experts, which sometimes in a year would carry out the control over the reserve activity that results, would be nicely exposed in the mass media.



References:


  1. Chase, G., and Reveal, E. (1983). How to Manage in the Public Sector, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

  2. Mills, A.S. (1985). Participation Motivations for outdoor Recreation: A Test of Maslow’s Theory. Journal of Leisure Research 17(3): 184-199



KORGALZHYN STATE NATURE RESERVE’S

SERVICE MANAGEMENT SUBSYSTEM


D. Yerimbekkyzy, Dr. Rafee Bin Majid

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)


As described in Figure 1, Service management gives direction to the managers and other stakeholders in term of provision, facilities, and related programs to adapt the visitors (Stankey, 1972).

The service management subsystem can be divided into various programs:



  1. Resource allocation process is an area planning where natural and physical resources are located to provide specific recreational opportunities. Area planning procedure is vital to service management; however some considerations about other auxiliary programs (e.g., concessions, preservation and risk management) should not be taken for granted.

  2. Concession management is concentrated on providing particular facilities/services in order for to satisfy the visitors by specific environmental settings. In some cases, it has been essential for the management to support either the facilities for the service or both the services and facilities.

  3. The maintenance subprogram is meant to protect public input in the facilities and preserving available accommodations for the public. While it is the first stage of management done on modern buildings or trails, it is often being taken for granted in other kinds of services (Hendee, 1990). Even though recreational facility management might like to vary the functions of the site, however maintenance should be prioritized.

  4. Hazard Management is a subprogram aimed at minimizing any risks, whether natural or manmade, to the visitors. The manager brings out some specific guidance of activities for the visitors in order to minimize any hazardous possibility, even though eventually the decision is up to the visitors whether they would like to implement the guidance or not.


Figure 1. Service management subsystem.

Source: Adopted from Jubenville (1993)



  1. Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve’s (KSNR)

service management section analysis

Based on the interview and documentary researches, several problems with the service management subsystem were identified.



The first column of the table below displays inputs which are considered in management process. These inputs are inhesion for management of all protected areas categories and outdoor recreational places. Therefore, KSNR belongs to Ia category “Strict Nature Reserve”, inputs such as, concession management, area planning, and site planning not considered in KSNR’s management. Second column shows what KSNR has. Third column shows the presence or absence of the problems in listed inputs, which are described bellow in detail. The fourth column provides implication.

Table1: KSNR’s service management subsystem findings

Service Management

Theory

KSNR

Problems

Implication

Constraints:

  • Legislation





Legislation is efficient

  • Agency Goals





Clearly stated

  • Program Coordination





Clearly stated

  • Professional Competence





It was identified that the reserve did not meet the requirements of qualified personnel. The situation of working in KSNR, including the physical situation (rural, remote area) and financial situation (low average wages), did not attract young professional experts

  • User Attitudes








Programs:

  • Concession Management






Due to Kazakhstani Specially Protected Areas regulations concession is prohibited

  • Special Services





The problems are appeared due to low financial support

  • Maintenance Management





The problems are appeared due to low financial support

  • Hazard Management





Natural and non-natural hazards might risk a big loss of wild animals, birds and surface vegetation. Natural hazard creates the dangers for visitors.

  • Area Planning






Due to Kazakhstani Specially Protected Areas regulations area planning activities is prohibited

  • Site planning






Due to Kazakhstani Specially Protected Areas regulations site planning is prohibited

Note: available input

presence of problem

absence of problem



Каталог: repository -> repository2012
repository2012 -> Современные тенденции развития иноязычного образования в высшей школе
repository2012 -> Эвристическое и содержательное
repository2012 -> Общие проблемы образования
repository2012 -> Урок русского языка в 6 классе г. Р. Булегенова ( школа-лицей №15 им. Д. И. Менделеева, г. Шымкент, Казахстан ) Тема : Спряжение глаголов
repository2012 -> Вестник ену им. Л. Н. Гумилев а №1 (80) • 2011
repository2012 -> Қазақстан республикасы мәдениет және ақпарат министрлігі
repository2012 -> Преподавание языковых дисциплин в школе и вузе
repository2012 -> Сборник материалов Международной научно-практической конференции
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  • Anthropogenous pollution of reservoirs
  • Irresponsible Uses of Biological Resources
  • KORGALZHYN STATE NATURE RESERVE’S
  • Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve’s (KSNR)
  • Tourism Activities Organizer
  • KORGALZHYN STATE NATURE RESERVE’S