Современные тенденции развития иноязычного образования в высшей школе

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Современные тенденции развития иноязычного образования в высшей школе



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Литература

  1. Государственный общеобразовательный стандарт образования Республики.

  2. Казахстан: Образование высшее профессиональное. Специальность 050119 «Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка». - Астана: МОиН РК, 2006. – 5C.

  3. Концепция развития иноязычного образования РК. - Алматы: Казахский университет международных отношений и мировых языков, 2004. - С. 30.

  4. Типовая учебная программа по специальности 050119 «Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка». - Алматы: Казахский университет международных отношений и мировых языков им. Абылай Хана, 2007.

  5. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Council of Europe. -Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

  6. European Language Portfolio. Council of Europe, Modern Languages Division. - Strasbourg, 2001. – PP. 1-3.

  7. Равен Д. Компетентность в современном обществе. Выявление, развитие и реализация. – М.: Когито-центр, 2002. - 395 с.

  8. Зимняя И.А. Ключевые компетенции – новая парадигма результата современного образования // Интернет-журнал «Эйдос», 2006. – 14 с.

  9. Таубаева Ш.Т. Введение в методологию и методику педагогического исследования. Учебное пособие. – Туркистан: Туран, 2007. – 190 с.

  10. Shulman L. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching // Educational Researcher, 15/2, 1986. – p. 9.

  11. Edge J. Applying linguistics in English language teacher training for speakers of other languages. // ELT Journal. – 1988. - # 42/1.

  12. Wright T. and R. Bolitho. Language awareness: a missing link in language teacher education? // ELT Journal. – 1993. - # 47/4.

  13. Wright T. Doing Language Awareness. // In H. Trappes-Lomax and G. Ferguson (eds) Language in Language Teacher Education. - Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2002.

  14. Andrews S. Teacher Language Awareness. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

  15. Kolb D. Experiential Learning as the Science of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

  16. Moon J. A handbook of reflective and experiential learning: theory and practice. London: Routledge / Falmer, 2004. – 252 p.


Strategies for developing reading proficiency
Құдабаева П.А.

Тараз инновациялық-гуманитарлық университеті (Қазақстан)
В данной статье рассматриваются основные стратегии развития навыков чтения.

Мақалада оқу машықтарын дамытудың негізгі стратегиялры қарастырылады
Reading is one of the main skills that a student must acquire in the process of mastering a foreign language. Reading is of great educational importance as reading is a means of communication, people get information they need from books, journals, magazines, newspapers, etc. Reading develops students’ intelligence. It helps to develop their memory, will, imagination.

Reading ability is not only of great practical, but educational and social importance. Such qualities as honesty devotion to and love for people are developed through reading.[5, 158 б.] The current explosion of research in second language reading has begun to focus on readers’ strategies.

Reading strategies are of interest for what they reveal about the way readers manage their interaction with written text and how these strategies are related to text comprehension. Research in second language reading suggests that learners use a variety of strategies to assist them with the acquisition, storage and retrieval of information. Strategies are defined as learning techniques, behaviors, problem-solving or study skills which make learning more effective and efficient.

Since the early seventies, for the most part, research in this area has concentrated on teaching second language learners to use a variety of language strategies in order to read better. These strategies consist of a whole range of strategies including contextual guessing, reading for meaning, utilizing background knowledge, recognizing text structure and so forth.

Less common, however, have been empirical investigations into reading strategies used by successful and unsuccessful second language learners.

The problem of the effective use of strategies for developing reading proficiency attracts attention of the following scientists: Ken Hyland, Yue Mei-yun, Meena Singhal.

Meena Singhal suggests a useful and comprehensive classification scheme of the various strategies into the following six strategies: cognitive strategies, memory strategies, compensation strategies, metacognitive strategies, affective strategies and social strategies.[3, 4-5 бб.]

Ken Hyland in his article «Teaching Extensive Reading Skills» suggests approaching every reading task with a clear purpose and with the flexibility to adjust reading strategy to the purpose at hand.

Yue Mei-yun in her article «Teaching Efficient English Foreign Language Reading» suggests the psychololinguistic models of reading as the summary of the efficient reading process.

In recent years, English language teachers have benefited from a growing body of research that describes how learning strategies can help students improve their acquisition of the language. Teachers and students alike can easily find useful references that list the numerous learning strategies and explain how to apply them to each of the four skills. According to O’Malley and Chamot, learning strategies are organized into three main categories: social-affective, cognitive and metacognitive. Social affective strategies include interacting and cooperating with others to assist learning; cognitive strategies involve manipulating the language to be learned; and metacognitive strategies encourage learners to reflect on thought processes and to plan, monitor, and evaluate aspects of their learning.

These strategies can be valuable instructional tools, especially for the reading skill, because many English as a Foreign Language teachers (EFL) find that there is insufficient practice time for students whoa re required to cope with studying a new language and to read for content. The need is heightened because at the post-secondary level, and particularly at the graduate and post-graduate levels, English suddenly becomes increasingly important for students who must take English for Special Purposes (ESP) courses and read technical subject matter in English. In some subjects English is the medium of instruction and a vehicle of content information. Although there are clear prescriptions from syllabus and curriculum developers to encourage activities that require the use of strategies such as scanning (reading a text quickly for specific details), and skimming (reading and previewing a text to find the main idea), in many EFL classrooms these terms are no more than clichés, and very little training is provided on how to actually use these strategies. As a result, students experience difficulties when reading research articles in subjects related to science and technology.

Research in the area of reading has also begun to focus on the role of metacognition.

Grabe and Stroller (2002) indicate that reading long selections of text quickly for general comprehension, which most fluent readers can do in their native language, is difficult to achieve and may not be a skill that is readily transferable to their second language. In the EFL classroom, many readers tend to rely on the slow and careful reading of texts from to start to finish, and they have difficulties with reading activities requiring the use of strategies for reading quickly and efficiently, such as skimming a lengthy research article for main ideas. As many practitioners have found, metacognitive strategies are one way to overcome these problems.

Metacognition is variously defined as «cognition of cognition» (Carrel, Pharis, and Liberto 1989), [1, 23 б.] «the conscious awareness of cognitive processes» (Bernhardt 1991), and «knowledge about learning» (Wenden, 1998). In relation to reading comprehension, metacognition is the «knowledge that takes as its object or regulates any aspect of any cognitive endeavor» (Flavell 1989). This definition suggests that metacognition not only relates to the individual thought processes one uses to learn but also to the self-regulation of cognition. Williams and Burden (1997), for instance, say that metacognitive strategies «include an ability to manage and regulate consciously the use of appropriate learning strategies for different situations. [6, 82 б.]

They involve an awareness of one’s mental processes and an ability to reflect on how one learns, in other words, knowing about one’s knowing». According to O’Malley and Chamot (1990), metacognitive strategies include selective attention to the task, planning, self-monitoring, and self-evaluating.[4, 102 б.] As applied to reading, these metacognitive strategies entail specifying a purpose for reading, planning how the text will be read, self-monitoring for errors in reading comprehension, and self-evaluating how well the overall objectives are being fulfilled, which allows for talking corrective measures if comprehension is not being achieved.

While previous research has focused on strategy use researches are examining readers’ awareness of strategies during the reading process – their metacognitive awareness. Metacognitive awareness is knowledge about ourselves, the tasks we face, and the strategies we employ. Knowledge about ourselves may include knowledge about how well we perform on certain types of tasks of our proficiency levels. Knowledge about tasks may include task difficulty level. For example in the area of reading, we may know that «familiar topic material» is easier to understand than «unfamiliar material». Metacognitive awareness involves the awareness of whether or not comprehension is occurring and the conscious application of one or more strategies to correct comprehension. First language reading researches most notably Baker and Brown (1984) have investigated several different aspects of the relationship between metacognitive ability and effective reading. Two dimensions of metacognitive ability have been recognized.



  1. knowledge of cognition or metacognitive awareness and

  2. regulation of cognition which is stated includes the reader’s knowledge about his or her cognitive resources and the compatibility between the reader and reading situation, for example, if a reader is aware of what is needed to perform effectively then it is possible to take steps to meet the demands of a reading situation more effectively if however, the reader is not aware of his or her own limitations as a reader of the complexity of the task at hand, then the reader can hardly be expected to take actions to anticipate or recover from difficulties.

Related to this is the reader’s conceptualization of the reading process in a second language. Younger and less proficient readers tend to focus on reading as a decoding process rather than as a meaning-making process.

A reader does not describe how to use a particular strategy but in fact does use it when reading. «To explain this», Baker and Brown (1984) point out that «knowing that» (declarative knowledge) is different from «knowing how» (procedural knowledge) and that knowledge that a particular strategy is useful (awareness) precedes its routine use, which in turn precedes the ability to describe how it is used.

For reading, reading strategies such as focusing on grammatical structures, sound letter, word-meaning and text details tend to be negatively correlated with reading performance.

The English Foreign Language group of more advanced proficiency levels, tend to be more global (use background knowledge, text gist, and textual organization) or top-down in their perceptions of effective and difficulty causing reading strategies.

The English Foreign Language group of lower proficiency levels tend to be more local or bottom-up decoding skills. Students who effectively consider and remember context as they read (i.e. strategy use) understand more of what they read than students who employ this strategy less or less well. So there appears to be a strong relationship between reading strategies used by readers metacognitive awareness, and reading proficiency. Better readers have an enhanced metacognitive awareness of their own use of strategies and what they know, which in turn leads to greater reading ability and proficiency.

More proficient readers exhibit the following types of reading behaviors:



  • overview text before reading,

  • employ context clues such as titles, subheadings, look for important information while reading and pay great attention to it than other information, attempt to relate important points in text to one another in order to understand the text as a whole, activate and use prior knowledge to interpret text, reconsider and attempt to determine the meaning of words not understood or recognized, monitor text comprehension, identify or infer main ideas, use strategies to remember text (paraphrasing, making notes, summarizing, self-questioning, etc.) understand relationships between parts of text recognize text structure, change reading strategies when comprehension is perceived not be proceeding smoothly; evaluate the qualities of text, reflect on and process additionally after a part has been read, and anticipate or plan for the use of knowledge gained from the reading.

This list does provide with a description of the characteristics of successful readers. The following guidelines for effective strategy instruction in classroom is offered:

  1. Teachers must think about how a particular strategy is best applied and in what contexts;

  2. Teachers must present strategies as applicable to texts and tasks in more than one content domain so that strategies can be applied in a variety of reading situations and contexts;

  3. Teachers must teach strategies over an entire year not just in a single lesson;

  4. Teachers must provide students with opportunities to practice strategies they have been taught;

  5. Teachers must be prepared to let students teach each other about reading and the studying process.

Creating an awareness of reading flexibility and developing the strategies for this are therefore among the most useful contribution the teachers can make to their students` futures.

Different purposes demand appropriate comprehension and retention levels and therefore the use of different reading strategies. The teachers’ objective in reading classes must be to improve the skills that will best help the students consciously select and effectively use the most appropriate technique for any reading task.[2, 108 б.]


Literature

  1. Carrel, P.L., B.G.Pharis, and J.C.Liberto 1989. Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly

  2. Kral T. Classroom Activities, Selected Articles from the English Teaching Forum 1989-1993, Washington D.C.1995. p. 108

  3. Meena Singhal, The Reading Matrix, reading Proficiency, Reading Strategies, Metacognitive awareness and L2 Readers, 2001

  4. O’Malley, J.M., and A.U.Chamot. 1990. Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  5. Rogova G.B., Teaching Reading 1992

  6. Williams, M., and R.L.Burden. 1997. Psychology for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


О коммуникативно-направленном профессиональном обучении студентов иностранному языку в вузе
Ли Т.В., Есенгалиева А. М.

Евразийский национальный университет имени Л.Н. Гумилева (Казахстан)
Within the frames of professional training of the modern expert of any profile the special attention is given to intercourse skills in special speech models. In the article the professional interactive competence is analyzed, lingvodidactic aspect of the professional communicative competence formation is considered, aspects of the information transfer are emphasized. The authors prove, that formation of the professional interactive competence, knowledge of the professional business cooperation are important in training to strategies of the professional communicative interaction, adequate speech behaviour, effective influence on the partner. For this purpose it’s necessary to teach to special speech models, correction of a professional discourse, and realization of communicative interaction strategy in each situation, directed on the achievement of practical problems decision.

Жаңа заманға сай кез келген профильді маманды дайындау барысында кәсіби жағдайларда қарым-қатынас біліктілігіне ерекше көңіл бөлінеді. Мақала авторларларының пікірі бойынша кәсіби біліктілікті қалыптастыру және кәсіби ынтымақтастық әлемін тану кәсіби коммуникативтік қарым-қатынас стратегиясын серіктеске ықпал ету, оқыту арқылы өтеді. Тілдік емес ЖОО-да кәсіби дискурсқа сәтті оқу тек лингвистикалық ғана емес, сонымен қатар дидактикалық факторларды оқу барысында қамтылады.
В настоящее время потребность в специалистах, владеющих иностранным языком, особенно возросла в связи с развитием международных деловых контактов, освоением новых технологий, созданием многочисленных совместных предприятий и интенсификацией профессиональной деятельности в тесном контакте с зарубежными специалистами. Обусловленная социальным заказом общества разработка вопросов обучения иностранным языкам специалистов является одной из самых актуальных проблем преподавания иностранных языков. В новой концепции обучения иностранному языку в неязыковом вузе подчёркивается, что иностранный язык является неотъемлемым компонентом профессиональной подготовки современного специалиста любого профиля [1, 6].

Вузовский курс носит профессионально ориентированный характер, поэтому его задачи определяются в первую очередь коммуникативными и познавательными потребностями специалистов соответствующего профиля, и он включает изучение закономерностей языка, мышления, социопсихологических особенностей речекоммуникативной деятельности, а также моделирование и обучение ситуациям коммуникативного взаимодействия. Введение когнитивных и социопсихологических категорий в аппарат исследования позволяет изучать проблемы овладения иностранным языком в иной, по сравнению традиционной, парадигме. Овладение иностранным языком в этом случае рассматривается как приобретение коммуникативной компетенции, то есть способности соотносить языковые средства с задачами и условиями общения с учётом социальных норм поведения и коммуникативной целесообразности высказывания [2, 20]. При этом необходимо учитывать, что коммуникативная компетенция включает в себя не только способность пользоваться языком, но и наличие знаний, которые лежат в основе реального общения. Таким образом, основным критерием уровня коммуникативных способностей следует считать не языковую правильность, а способность к эффективному общению при помощи изучаемого языка на базе аутентичных текстов, отражающих социальные, культурные концепты иной социальной общности. Как известно, в современной дидактике наиболее распространённой признаётся трёхуровневая модель коммуникативных умений, в рамках которой выделяется способность коммуникантов:

- оперировать энциклопедическими знаниями, отражающими устройство реального мира, включая области профессиональной деятельности человека; - пользоваться арсеналом разноуровневых средств языка для достижения прагматических целей;

-устанавливать речевой или текстовый контакт с партнёром на основе правил общения, принятых в данном социуме (интерактивная или дискурсивная компетенция).



В рамках профессиональной подготовки современного специалиста любого профиля особое внимание уделяется навыкам общения в профессиональных ситуациях. Известно, что на энциклопедическом (когнитивном) уровне знания, навыки и умения, необходимые будущим специалистам для успешной иноязычной профессиональной деятельности, существенно разнятся в соответствии с областью науки из-за профессиональной ориентированности тезауруса как составляющей когнитивной базы языковой личности, а на стратегическом, интерактивном и лингвистических уровнях наблюдается определённый параллелизм коммуникативных способностей и дискурсивных универсалиях. Одной из особенностей коммуникативно-направленного профессионального обучения иностранному языку является соединение лингвистической компетенции (усвоение языковых норм) и общения (интерактивной компетенции) как основного вида деятельности в модели обучения «человек - человек». Анализ опыта преподавания английского языка в университете убедительно показывает, что приобщение будущих специалистов к профессиональным фрагментам англоязычной картины мира существенно ограничено отсутствием в их картине мира многих стереотипных ситуаций общения, дискурсивных стратегий, профессиональных концептов, свойственных социуму страны изучаемого языка. Наибольшие трудности при обучении иностранному языку вызывают такие ситуации делового общения, как установление личных контактов, написание деловых писем, беседы по телефону, проведение встреч и переговоров и т.д.; носители русского языка имеют ограниченные знания стратегий коммуникативного развёртывания вышеназванных ситуаций на когнитивном уровне, не владеют языковыми сигналами их структурирования и взаимодействия в них. Данное обстоятельство заставляет обратить особое внимание на усвоение студентами ситуаций делового общения, на развитие навыков адекватной ориентировки в замыслах общающихся, в тех социальных и профессиональных ценностях, из которых исходят носители другой культуры. Предметом познавательной деятельности студентов, изучающих иностранный язык, должны стать типичные ситуации, возникающие в деловом общении в англоязычном социуме, их структурация и языковая манифестация. Формирование профессиональной интерактивной компетенции, познание мира профессионального делового сотрудничества есть обучение стратегиям профессионального коммуникативного взаимодействия, адекватного речевого поведения, эффективного воздействия на партнёра. Достигается это путём моделирования в учебном процессе ситуаций профессионального сотрудничества, в которых иностранный язык выступает как инструмент социального взаимодействия личности и профессионального инофонного коллектива; в нём отражаются все изменения социокультурных факторов, влияющие на иерархию смыслов и ценностей в картине мира личности, её менталитет, прагматические установки. Речь идёт не только о специальном, профессионально-ориентированном обучении, но и в первую очередь об обучении специальным речевым моделям, коррекции профессионального дискурса, реализации стратегии коммуникативного взаимодействия в каждой ситуации, направленной на достижение соглашения в решении практических задач. Профессиональная коммуникация предполагает такие речевые действия, как презентация материала, письменный и устный обмен информацией, выражение мнения, обсуждение и т.д.

Многочисленные определения профессиональной коммуникации, в основном, сводятся к трём аспектам передачи информации: текст, форма передачи информации, смысл коммуникации [3, 35]. В фокусе первого подхода находится непосредственно сообщение (презентации, публичные выступления, деловая корреспонденция; обратная связь носит опосредованный характер); в основе его лежит языковая эффективность. Второй подход предполагает изучение способов передачи информации. Третий подход интегрирует смысл (коммуникативное намерение) из того, что говорят и делают коммуниканты. Смысл значительно шире сообщения и может быть декодирован только с учётом личностно-профессиональных характеристик коммуникантов, ситуации делового общения, социально-культурного опыта. Коммуникант должен уметь определять роль и статус общающихся и строить своё сообщение, учитывая межкультурные особенности общения, ориентируясь на конкретного человека, используя специфические языковые средства. Для успешного профессионального взаимодействия, в основе которого лежит единство предмета деятельности и направленность на решение производственной задачи, необходимо сочетать языковую компетенцию, профессиональные знания и социально-поведенческий контекст. Ситуациям делового общения целесообразно о6учать в определённой последовательности, которая в свою очередь соответствует основным коммуникативным потребностям личности и этапам обучения профессиональному дискурсу. Обучение деловому общению включает два аспекта: во-первых, обучение языку взаимодействия, способствующему адекватной ориентации в замыслах общающихся и реализации фактической потребности коммуникантов и, во-вторых, профессионально-ориентированное обучение ценностям и знаниям, понятийному аппарату и идеям профессионально-интеллектуальной, социокультурной сфер личности, из которых исходят участники общения. Схемы, фреймы, стереотипные ситуации, формулы диаграммы, слова-сигналы, являющиеся способом представления знаний на лингвокогнитивном уровне, вербализуются в текстах профессиональной ориентации и реализуют информационную потребность коммуникантов. Наиболее адекватные способы реализации установок, мотивов коммуникантов находят отражение в процессе порождения текстов и реализуют потребность личности. В аутентичных текстах актуализируются социопсихо-культурные параметры участника общения: социальная роль, профессиональный статус, стереотип поведения и его коммуникативная компетентность. Формирование профессиональной интерактивной компетенции следует начинать с обучения когнитивным программам профессионального дискурса: выработать у студентов представление о фреймах деловой ситуации. Успешное коммуникативное взаимодействие базируется на основных прагматических принципах кооперации и вежливости, поэтому обучение стратегиям и тактикам профессионального дискурса целесообразно осуществлять в режиме сотрудничества. Параллельно с работой над фреймами и стратегиями на языковом уровне вводятся и активизируются интерактивные сигналы, начиная с самых простых, связанных с установлением и поддержанием первых контактов, к более сложным, связанным с запросом и получением информации. Интерактивные стратегии профессионального дискурса носят, вероятно, универсальный характер в режиме кооперативной, симметричной коммуникации, что, впрочем, не исключает своеобразия когнитивной структурации модели и макростратегий в профессиональном взаимодействии различных социумов. Завершает формирование профессиональной интерактивной компетенции у вторичной языковой личности знакомство с межкультурными особенностями поведения представителей речевой сообщности в деловых ситуациях.

Таким образом, профессиональная интерактивная компетенция представляет собой сложное лингвопсихологическое явление, обусловленное реализацией явных и скрытых стратегий участников коммуникации. Лингводидактический аспект формирования профессиональной коммуникативной компетенции связан, прежде всего, с моделированием речекоммуникативной деятельности в учебном процессе и решением ряда лингвистических и дидактических задач. Поскольку оба указанных аспекта тесно связаны между собой и в реальной модели профессиональной коммуникации идут параллельно при формировании вторичной языковой личности, то успешное обучение профессиональному дискурсу в неязыковом вузе может быть обеспечено только при учёте как лингвистических) так и дидактических факторов.


Литература

  1. Методические указания к типовым программам по иностранным языкам для неязыковых специальностей. - М.: МГЛУ, 2007. – 45 c.

  2. Гез Н.И. Формирование коммуникативной компетенции как объект зарубежных методических исследований. // Иностранные языки в школе. – 1995. - №2. - С. 17-24.

  3. 3. Поляков О.Г. К вопросу о коммуникативном языковом тестировании. // Лингвистика на рубеже XX –XXI веков: Итоги и перспективы. Тезисы международной конференции. - М.: МГУ, 2008.


New aspects for teaching external policy issues to undergraduate students:

an academic approach
Maksut K.M.

Eurasian National University after L.N. Gumilyov (Kazakhstan)
Бұл мақалада студенттерді теориялық тұрғыдан оқытудағы академиялық әдістемені қолданудың маңыздылығы баяндалады. Бакалавр-студенттер көбінесе теорияны меңгерудің академиялық әдістемесін оқытпайтын мектеп табалдырығынан тура жоғарғы оқу орындарына (ЖОО) түсуіне байланысты, олардың кейбірі университеттің алғашқы семестрлерінде оқытылатын елдің сыртқы саясатының теориясына тиісті көңіл бөлмейді. Мақалада соңғы жылдардағы студенттерді даярлау деңгейінің өзгерту мәселесі, сонымен қатар кәсіби өмірдегі теорияның маңыздылығын бакалавр-студенттерге жеткізу үшін оқытушылардың дәріске дайындық мәселелерін реттеудің бағыттары жарық көрген.

В данной статье рассматривается важность использования академического подхода для обучения студентов теории. В виду того, что студенты – бакалавры часто поступают в вузы прямо из школ, где они не обучались использованию академического подхода изучения теории, некоторые из них не проявляют должного интереса к теории внешней политик стран, которая преподается в первых семестрах в университете. В статье освящен вопрос изменения уровня подготовки студентов в последние годы, и как преподаватели должны регулировать вопросы подготовки к занятиям, для того чтобы показать студентам – бакалаврам важность теорий в их профессиональной жизни.

Introduction

The evolving global and hemispheric events have brought new challenges and new opportunities to the dynamic process of human, social and economic development in every part of the world.

In charting its way forward, the World Community has placed people at the centre of its agenda. The Community has also resolved to strengthen its institutions so that they are well equipped to function effectively in the increasingly competitive global economy. Good governance and democracy will remain the hallmarks of our political, social and economic development. These are some of the elements of the vision of Kazakhstani government as our community seeks to participate fully in the hemisphere and in the wider international community.

We have to show the students that the international community is sharing this vision with us, a vision that places priority on the human potential, on many people – on all our people. This is in keeping with the focus of providing external policy of our country. In this case the education for international relations students is on trial according to constantly changes occurred in external policy of any country.

Education itself nowadays is gradually changing. Google has changed the way we all study. Just a few years ago, the only option to find articles or any other publication was through good libraries and brochures. Information used to take too long to get to other places, especially to other countries. Nowadays, distance is no longer a problem. Books can get anywhere in the world within a couple of days and articles can be published and seen simultaneously by anyone everywhere in the world. Good researches can be done from home at such a rapid speed.

In order to teach the young generation the new aspects of any subject, we have to change the approaches by which we are going to provide information.

We have to analyse how technology has changed education, the new kind of demands from the students and the necessity of teachers to adjust to new kinds of pedagogies and metolologies in order to make classes more attractive to the new generations. The focus will be the necessity of teaching well theories to International Relations BA students. After explaining why it is so important to teach theories, we will go on to some suggestions of approaches for the new teaching, such as the use of comparative technology.

The change in both education and students

Moran [1] identifies as a general complaint from students at all levels of education that classes are boring and they can no longer stand the traditional way of teaching. Students complain about the distance between theory and practise, about keep listening to a teacher for hours and about the kind of use of technology in education. Most educational institutes have good technological equipment, such as data shows, computers and teleconference equipments. Nevertheless, the way of teaching remains mostly the same. The new media was incorporated only marginally. Although school remains the main certifier and organiser of education, pupils have got the opportunity of learning from many other sources. One can easily learn how to manage any computer program from a video in Youtube rather than by reading the tutorial. It is impossible to deny teaching and learning is challenged as they have never been before. Education has become much more complex [1, 245-246].

On-line education is a reality more common each day. Without questioning the quality of such programs, the fact is that it is possible to have a BA degree by attending video-conference lectures, on-line classes and guidances. The students need to attend classes only occasionally and usually for tests. Traditionalists would say it is not worth comparing both systems. However it is necessary to recognise that student's demands are no longer the same. People are used to on-time information, to computer presentations and to worldwide interaction. The question teachers and professors must ask nowadays is how to bring students' attention to class once again.

A joint work between methodology and pedagogy on each area of science has to be developed.

Classroom must be a place to incite students to think. Teachers now have to have a new approach and make use of technology to bring students' interest back to classroom. Moran says that the new “infra-structure must serve changes on the teachers' behaviour, changing from being a “nanny”, who gives them everything ready, chewed, to help them, on the other hand, on organising the informative chaos, on the management of the contradictions of values and visions of the world, meanwhile, on the other hand, the teacher incites the student, “upsets” him, deinstalls him, incites him for changes and not to remain settled on the first synthesis” [1, 247].

From the methodological aspect, more than inciting, any teacher has got to help students to organize the information they have available, so students can understand them. And “Understand is organise, systematise, compare, evaluate, contextualise” [1, 245-247].

. He keeps on by saying that a second pedagogic dimension is to question and to create a tension on the understanding students had on the previous step. More than organising, a teacher must help students to surpass their knowledge.

Disorganising instigate students, and, by doing so, it brings their attention to looking for new information that might help them to understand a bit more the problems given them by the teacher.



The use of external policy issues as an explanation of dynamic changes

According to some experts, external policy is pulse of state’s policy. In order to explain what is external policy we can have two moments in education, and they can be both used alternately or combined. They can be used to organise or to disorganise the knowledge. One can use a video in the classroom to confirm a theory or a specific point of view which has been worked already, or to incite new topics, ideas, positions, perspectives or values.

The use of videos and other popular culture would help to bring the academia to the world people live in. It exists because of the community and for the community.

In order to comprehend the difficult nature of external policy of countries it is important to study foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. It is often considered a branch of political science (especially after 1988 UNESCO nomenclature), but an important sector of academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study.

In this case it is important to note that students must study also the psychological factors in international relations which come from the understanding that a state is not a 'black box' as proposed by realism, and that there may be other influences on foreign policy decisions. Examining the role of personalities in the decision making process can have some explanatory power, as can the role of misperception between various actors. A prominent application of sub-unit level psychological factors in international relations is the concept of Groupthink, another is the propensity of policymakers to think in terms of analogies.

The Importance of Theory to the International Relations field

According to some experts, “we acknowledge that theory, even if it transforms the perceptions or concepts, if not put to practise won't change reality”. This claim, brought from the critical theory, has its validation if one supposes theories can change reality. It is not the purpose of this article to discuss it, nor is it to support or deny the claims of the critical theories. But it can be brought from this statement that theory without a visual concept to practise is nothing.

The argument here is to show precisely all students must know theories in order to be able to understand and analyse reality. International Relations, just as any other social science, is subject to the illusion that practise can be diverted from theory. Anybody can be put in a position and be asked to perform a given task. Some might do it, but just the ones with real knowledge of the theoretical implications will do it well. So the most important aspect at teaching International Relations is to bring students' attention to theory. And, to do so, new pedagogic approaches should be used in order to enchant the Google generation.

The use of multimedia to teach International Relations Theory

Theory is extremely necessary for the good development of future practitioners. There is no cognitive analysis without theory and, to be recognised as a “serious” science, International Relations must have theories more and more developed and studied.

The problem raised is that not all pupils are interested in studying theory. Those pupils will either quit the course for not finding a cognitive practise to work with or will be less prepared practitioners. What can teachers do?

The first part of this paper has tried to show the importance of teachers understanding the new demands brought by their students. Technology has made it very easy to bring new assets to class and new experiences and interest might be born from that. On that sense, teachers have got to look for a new way of bringing students' attention to theory. Students might be asked to theoretically analyse three different films by using theories of International Relations. At first, there might be a fear that students would just be in class to watch the film and after that they would not take part on the discussions.

The whole idea of the course is to bring students' attention to the study of theories by usage of mass media, and they might be more interested in theories after the experiment.

Films, the open lectures, the use of multimedia resources can help students visualise what they have read on the literature. By doing so, theory becomes a little closer to real life for them. The exercise here is to help them to think abstractly and see theory outside the books. One can explain the anarchical environment of the system by using a billiard board as an example or can simply show a short film with a group of children without any adults nearby disputing who commands the group. Films can be a good source of theoretical analysis because, even though some of them are simply not real, a parallel to reality can be done, so pupils can identify both what the suppositions for each film theories would expect and how that situation would probably be dealt in real life. The secret is to look for films that can exemplify a given theory or concept or even help them arise questions to later be theoretically analysed.

The use of new media is just another tool in trying to bring pupils' attention to the association between theory and practise.

Being theories a milestone for International Relations studies and being students not the same they were before the technological boom, teachers are asked now much more than a couple of years ago.

They shall be more than instructors, but also tools on the hands of the students to show them how theory and practise are much closer to them than what they think.
Bibliography


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Іnnovative techniques in teaching english at grass-roots level
Ms. Khan Mahlaqa Afzal

Maulana Azad College of Arts (India)

Данная статья главным образом рассматривает приемы и методы обучения иностранному языку в многочисленных группах. эти методы основаны на формировании коммуникативной компетенции студентов и интегрировании языковых навыков в процессе обучения. что касается приемов, то они апробированы на занятиях английского языка в колледжах Индии, а также рассмотрены их положительные и отрицательные стороны эффективности их применения.

Берілген мақалада шет тілін әр түрлі топтарда оқытудың әдістері мен тәсілдері қарастырылады. Бұл әдістер студенттердің коммуникативті құзыреттілігін қалыптастыру мен оқыту барысында тілдік дағдыларды қолдануға негізделген. Тәсілдер Үнді елінің колледждерінде ағылшын тілі сабақтарында сынақтан өтіп, оларды қолданудың тиімді және тиімсіз жақтары қарастырылды.
Teachers of English as foreign language or secondary language face numbers of problems, such as large classes’ lack of appropriate material, books and technological equipments. It is widely known fact that teaching and learning a foreign language cannot reduced to the direct teaching of linguistic skills like phonology, morphology, vocabulary and syntax. The contemporary models of communicative competence show that there is much more to learn in a language. Teaching requires creativity, there are lots of different methods, strategies, and techniques that can be applied and brought into classroom Teacher needs effective, efficient and innovative techniques to help students in improving their language skills as well enjoy learning process and learn the target language. Any teaching technique or method include portfolio based instruction will not be fully successful if students are not engaged in the process. Techniques are closely related to methods and approaches:

Different theories about the nature of language and

how languages are learned (the approach) imply

different ways of teaching language (the method),

and different methods make use of different

kinds of activity (techniques).

(Longman dictionary of applied linguistics 1985)

The innovative techniques according to me are those which can be fun for students as well as teacher such as group work, project making activities and questioning. By using such activities students become more motivated and encouraged to learn, especially when materials and activities are interesting for students the learning process turn into spontaneous adoption of language. among all these the most important and effective in learning English language is group work, which helps students to overcome the barriers of being shy to share and speak in front of other, here student have chance to learn from each other as well improve their performance. In country like India we have the problem of TTT (Teacher talking time) many teacher teach standing at the front of the class and students sitting in row and listening. Teacher explain a new theme or a topic and after some explanation the students do some practice exercise or translation of text and they are assessed whether they have understood what they have been explain by teacher. Teacher does most of the talking throughout the lesson and only teacher is the most active person. This is against the language teaching. The more the teacher talk, the less the opportunity is there for students to learn. Some teacher are afraid of silence in their class so they prefer to speak and some teacher think that it is more useful for students to listen to teacher to learn language. Which is not at all true, this problem can be solve by group work

Technique no .1

Let me explain the technique of group work:

Suppose in the class you have 50 students you can divide them into 5, 6 or even 10 groups. After dividing the class into groups and if one group consist 5 members give each member one responsibility or role to perform or teacher can ask them to choose their leader, secretary monitor, and representative or speaker of the group. It is important to give them role to perform and have responsibility to carry the whole group work. The second step in group work is giving clear instructions about time and topic for example student you have 10 minutes to discuss your favourite city, you can discuss about

1. Which is your favourite city?

2. Why do you like it?

3. What are the three places you want to visit in your favourite city?

4. Can you buy anything special there?

After instructions ask group to start discussion ask leader to see weather discussion is going on right direction or not ask monitor to control and maintain the discipline in the group, secretary take all important points, while the discussion teacher must go to every group and help them in their discussion check whether they are really busy in discussion and assess them if it is necessary. After completion of time teacher have to give them the list of Adjective such as

1. Beautiful

2. Big / small

3. Cheap /expensive

4. Clean

5. Interesting

6. Safe


7. Relaxing

And ask them to write a paragraph in 10 minutes using adjectives. After 10 minutes secretary will write a Para using adjective with the help of group members and speaker of the group will present it. And for 5 groups it will take only 10 to 15 minutes. In group work teacher can teach all four skills listening,(to each other and to the instructions of teacher) speaking ( with each other under the supervision of teacher)reading( their notes and list of adjective) and writing( the paragraph about MY FAVOURITE CITY). And group work increases students talking time ( STT ) opportunities to use the target language to communicate with each other and develop the sense of co-operation , sense of progress and achievement from group work activities. Group work is good teaching technique because

· Give all student lots of practice time to use the language.

· Allows the quieter students to speak to group members, instead of speaking in front of whole class.

· Teaches students to help each other with their learning.

· Can improve motivation and students ‘ use of English’

· Allow students to talk about their own ideas, opinion and real life facts, so that they can develop real communication skills.

· Helps them to become more accurate and fluent in English.

· Varieties of groupings give students a change of working styles and learning experience.

Technique no .2

The second technique which can be use as a follow up of group work is project making activities which teacher can co relate with group work is project making task or activities

After learning about MY FAVOURITE CITY and listening to each other through group work, students will gets more and new ideas .now the students have suggested to prepare a project according to the theme, it can be individual work, pair work or even group work. The topic related to earlier topic can be my city, my favourite country, or my favourite holiday spot. Here teacher must give them clear instructions about what they suppose to make, the structure, the materials, given time and how they can make this project interesting. Questions foe such project can be;

1. What time of year you should go there?

2. What are three things you can do there?

3. Can you buy anything special?

4. What shouldn’t a visitor miss?

5. What shouldn’t people do?

Ask students to use pictures and while writing the project they have to use verbs such as should spend, can go, should visit, should try, shouldn’t miss and can see.

The student will have the clear purpose for their project work and they are energized motivated to work hard to improve their writing skill and they have freedom to create their own masterpieces. Throughout this process, the teacher is not only responder or evaluator but the students are also involved in responding of their classmates. In group work they will learn the meaning and use of adjective and in project work the focus will be on writing with the help of MODEL VERBS CAN AND SHOULD. There are many types of project that can be done in classroom they can be related to the real world and interesting current events and the more they will result in use of authentic verbal communication use to accomplish the task. This type of teaching required knowing about student’s needs and interests and applying that knowledge to activities and tasks. This lead student’s to realize that learning has a purpose and learning with purpose is bound to be exciting.

The another innovative technique, which i personally like the most and which cover all the four skills in learning English as a second language is Brainstorm

Technique no.3

In brainstorm, the students are given a single stimulus which serves as a clue for large number of responses. The stimulus may be a question with plenty of possible answers like what do you do when.......? , picture to be described, commented or ask about (describing picture or brief text that can be expanded in different ways or problem demanding diverse solutions.

The advantages of this technique are that it provides a large volume of productive language practice on the part of the learners relative to the contribution of the teacher and that it allows students to compose utterance at convenient level for them. It also encourages originality and humour, and many brainstorming activities interesting and amusing results. The wide range of possibilities are open to participants and the fact that many of them are original and entertaining means to tend to be motivated to contribute and activity usually move forward briskly, with a high ‘density’ of learners participation.

Brainstorming can be given as written work as well, in class or for homework assignments; or written and oral work can be combined, as when learners are asked first to note down all the ideas they can think of and then to share them. Teacher can ask what do you think when i say MY SCHOOL; they may say beautiful building, big class rooms, friends, teachers, play ground, favourite subjects, or even timing of the school.

Ask them to arrange all the points and write a paragraph about my school, this activity can be done as individual or pair works instead of in the full class.

While using techniques teacher of English language must have some guidelines such as

· What level of learner is this suitable for?

· How suitable is this activity in terms of age and experience?

· What are the learning outcomes of this activity?

· What are the stages and tasks design for this activity?

· Does the teacher need to pre teach some vocabulary or other language items before the students can do this activity successfully?

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