Методическая разработка по обучению реферированию и аннотированию научной литературы для студентов магистратуры и аспирантов на английском языке

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Методическая разработка по обучению реферированию и аннотированию научной литературы для студентов магистратуры и аспирантов на английском языке



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§ 2. При изложении темы работы возможно, но менее типично использовать сказуемое в действительном залоге при подлежащем, выраженном личным местоимением 1-го лица множественного числа или существительным the author (authors), а также существительными study, investigation, paper (article) experiment, theory, hypothesis и др.
Примеры:

1. Мы рассмотрели ряд программ. Был рассмотрен ряд программ.

We have considered a series of programs.

2. В статье рассматриваются неко-торые свойства этого вещества.

The paper studies some properties of this substance.


Задание 1. Поставьте сказуемое в следующих предложениях в страдательном залоге, при этом опустите местоимение или суще­ствительное, обозначающее действующее лицо.

Образец: We investigated the structure of the atom.



The structure of the atom (the atom structure) was investigated.
1. The authors developed some theoretical models.

2. We found an approach to the problem.

3. The investigation deals with the problem of robots design.

4. The author has analyzed the material obtained.

5. The paper considered a series of standard programs.

6. The author gives the data which are concerned with computer design.


§ 3. В реферате следует пользоваться, в первую очередь, формами настоящего времени Present Indefinite, в тех случаях, ког­да необходимо подчеркнуть законченный характер действия — Present Perfect. Форма прошедшего времени — Past Indefinite используется при описании проделанной работы (эксперимента, иссле­дования, вычисления и т.д.).

Примеры:

1. Анализируется современный компьютер.

A modern computer is analyzed.

2. Были изучены вcе преиму­щества графических методов.

All the advantages of graphical methods have been studied.

3. В 1965 г. был разработан БЕЙСИК.

BASIC has been developed in 1965.

§ 4. При сообщении о предмете исследования понадобится целый ряд глаголов.



Глаголы с общим значением исследования:

Study – имеет наиболее широкое употребление и означает «изучать, исследовать».

Investigate – подчеркивает тщательность исследования.

Examine – помимо «изучать, исследовать», означает «рассмат­ривать, внимательно осматривать, проверять».

Analyze – исследовать, изучать, анализировать.

Consider – изучать, рассматривать.

Примеры:

1. Изучается новая проблема.

A new problem is studied.

2. Была исследована причина взрыва.

A cause of the explosion has been investigated.

3. Изучались древние рукописи.

Old manuscripts were examined.

4. Рассматриваются стадии програм-мирования.

Stages of programming are considered.

§ 5. Глаголы с общим значением описания:



Describe – описывать, давать описание.

Discuss – обсуждать описывать (с элементом полемики), излагать.

Outline – кратко описывать, описывать (в общих чертах), очерчивать.

Consider – рассматривать, обсуждать (принимая во внима­ние разные параметры).
Примеры:

1. Описываются персональные компьютеры.

Personal computers are described.


2. Обсуждаются конструкция и рабочие характеристики прибора.

The design and operating conditions of the device are discussed.

3. Описаны преимущества этого метода. (О преимуществах говорится кратко, они только очерчены).

The advantages of the method are outlined.

4. Рассмотрен вопрос об использовании одного микропроцес-сорного кристалла.

The use of a single microprocessor chip as the processor has been considered.

§ 6. Глаголы с общим значением получения:

Obtain – получать (наиболее широкое значение).

Determine – определять, получать, находить (любым способом).

Find– находить, обнаруживать.

Establish – устанавливать, (точно) определять, (убедительно) показывать.
Примеры:

1. Получены предварительные данные.

Preliminary data have been obtained.

2. Была определена структура этого устройства.

The structure of this device was determined.

3. Обнаружены редкие документы.

Rare documents are found.

4. Установлены логические связи в этом компьютере.

Logical relations in the computer have been established.


В английском языке более употребительны, чем в русском, глаголы, указывающие на способ получения:


derive (equations, expressions, curves, formulae, relations etc.)

— получать (выводы, уравнения, выражения, кривые, формулы, соотношения и пр.)

produce (create) а compound plasma, power etc.

— получать (производить, создавать) соединение, плазму, вещество, мощность и т.д.

Глагол получать может включать понятие «получено путем вычисления, вычислено» — calculate, compute, estimate, evaluate.



Calculate — вычислять, подсчитывать, находить, опре­делять величину (при помощи арифметичес­ких действий).

Compute — подсчитывать, производить численный расчет (часто с помощью вычислительной техники).

Estimate — оценивать, получать оценку (в числах), оп­ределять, находить количественную величину.

Evaluate — оценивать (величину, количество, степень, значение, роль) определять, выяснять, нахо­дить (причину явлений или событий).
Примеры:

1. Определена (получена) последо-вательность операций.

The sequence of operations has been computed.

2. Определена интенсивность импуль-са.

The pulse intensity has been estimated.

3. Определена работа системы.

The system performance was evaluated.




Задание 2. В следующих предложениях переведите сказуемое на английский язык, подобрав нужный глагол, согласно рекомендации, данной в скобках. Поставьте сказуемое в указанной временной форме. Помните, что в предложениях должен быть прямой порядок слов.
Образец: Были получены (проанализированы) the results of the experiment (Past Ind.).

The results of the experiment were analyzed.




  1. Изучалась (была проанализирована) the fine structure of films (Past, Ind.).

  2. Рассматривается (проверяется его пригодность) a new method of integrating the equations (Pr. Ind.).

  3. Исследуется (подробно) the development cycle of the phenomenon (Pr. Ind.).

  4. Изучены blocking effects in scattering the particles (Pr. Perf.).

  5. Обсуждается the electron creation rate (Pr. Ind.).

  6. Был описан the design of this radio apparatus (Past. Ind.).

  7. Рассматривается (учитывается весь процесс) the гоle of the changed conditions (Pr. Ind.).

  8. Уже обсуждался (был проанализирован) the method of integrating the equation (Pr. Perf.).

  9. Определяется (путем оценки) the shift of the energy Isvels (Pr. Ind.).

  10. Была найдена (вычислена) the electron generation rate (Pr. Perf.).


Задание 3. Переведите следующие предложения по образцу, подобрав глаголы с соответствующим оттенком значения. Поставьте сказуемое в нужной временной форме.
Образец: Рассматриваются возможности цифрового компьютера. Possibilities of digital computer are studied.


  1. Рассматриваются возможности персональных компьютеров.

  2. Изучается программное обеспечение (software).

  3. Проведено исследование этой системы базы данных (data base system).

  4. Были описаны электростатические свойства частиц (properties of particles).

  5. Обсуждаются преимущества использования языка КОБОЛ (the advantages of using COBOL).

  6. Рассмотрены технические достижения в этой области (technical advances).

  7. Обсуждается автоматизированное проектирование (computer-aided design).

  8. Рассчитано числовое программное управление (numerical control).

  9. Выясняются (определяются) графические возможности (graphical capabilities) этого устройства.

  10. Проводится анализ конечных элементов (finite-element analysis).

  11. Выясняется (определяется) машинное «зрение» (machine-vision.).


Задание 4. Сопоставьте русский и английский тексты следующего краткого реферата, отметьте лексико-синтаксические расхождения.


Электронное программное устрой-ство для стандарт­ного усреднителя сигна­лов.

An Electronic Programming Device for Standard Multichannel Analyzer Averager.

Описано электронное программ­ное устройство, с помощью ко­торого в магнитной спектро­скопии можно применять стан­дартный усреднитель сигналов на основе многоканального анализатора. В схеме исполь­зуются обычный электронный счетчик и цифроаналоговый преобразователь.


An electronic programming de­vice is described which allows the standard multichannel ana­lyzer averager to be used in spectroscopy. The standard electronic counter and digital-to-analog converter are incor­porated in the circuit presen­ted.



§ 7. При составлении реферата вам могут понадобиться следующие сочетания глаголов с существительными:




make (undertake, perform) a study

— исследовать, изучать, анали- зировать

carry out an investigation

— проводить исследование

perform analysis of (on)

— проводить анализ

make calculation, estimation, evaluation of (on)…

— подсчитывать, рассчитывать, давать оценку, находить, определять

make measurements of (on)

— измерять, делать измерения

give description of…

— описывать, давать описание, рассматривать

§ 8. Чтобы охарактеризовать, как производилось исследо­вание, измерение, вычисление, можно использовать такие конкретизирующие наречия сочетания:

thoroughly, in detail – подробно, детально, во всех подробностях;

accurately, carefully – тщательно, внимательно.



Примечание. Наречия accurately, carefully и thoroughly ставятся между вспомогательными и смысловыми глаголами, сочета­ние in detail – в конце предложения.
Примеры:

1. Тщательно изучалась система управления.

The control system was thoroughlу

investigated.



2. Эти данные изучались во всех подробностях.

This data were investigated in

detail.

§ 9. Если действие выражено глагольно-именным сочетанием (a study is made), то для его характеристики следует пользо­ваться прилагательными: detailed - подробный; careful, thorough - тщательный; extensive - обширный; accurate - точный; comprehensive - исчерпывающий; brief, short - крат­кий; preliminary - предварительный. Эти прилагательные ставятся перед существительным в функции подлежащего.


А thorough study of the phenomenon was made.

Проводилось тщательное изучение этого явления.


Задание 4. Переведите на английский язык следующие предло­жения, соблюдая прямой порядок слов, поставьте сказуемое в заданную временную форму. Помните о месте наречия.

1. Внимательно изучались регистры общего назначения (general-purpose registers) (Past Ind.).

2. Регистры управления (control registers) рассматриваются во всех подробностях.(Pr. Ind.).

3. Проведен тщательный анализ этого программно-аппаратного обеспе-чения (firm ware) (Pr. Perf.).

4. Подробно изучен промежуточный слой (Pr. Perf.).

5. Руководство к компьютеру (a computer manual) было внима­тельно проанализировано (Past Ind.).


Задание 5. Сравните следующие пары русских и английских предложений, обращая внимание на то, как в них выражены понятия «изучать, рассматривать, измерять», а также на определение при подлежащем и артикли.


1. Были широко изучены блок-схемы.

A comprehensive study of flow­ charts was made.

2. Проводилось обширное ис­следование возбуждения звука в сверхпроводящей пленке.

An extensive study was performed

of the excitation of sound in а

superconducting film.


3. Тщательно исследовались типы проводимости монокристаллических пленок.

A detailed analysis of the type

of conduction of single crystal

films has been carried out.


4. Дано точное описание этого языка программиро­вания.

An accurate description of this

programming language has been

given.


5. Проведено предварительное измерение каркасных моде­лей.

Preliminary measurements of

wire-frame models have been

made.


§ 10. Вот еще несколько глаголов, которые могут быть полезны для сообщения о теме работы:


develop (method, technology, device)

— разрабатывать (метод, техно-

логию, прибор)



design (device, scheme)

— проектировать (прибор, схему)

construct, fabricatе, create (a device)

— изготовлять, создавать, строить, сооружать (прибор)

assemble (device)

— собирать (прибор)

solve (problem, equation)

— решать (задачу, уравнение)

make, carry out, perform (experiment, study, work)

— проводить (делать, ставить)

опыт




II. СООБЩЕНИЕ О РЕЗУЛЬТАТАХ РАБОТЫ
§ 1. Для сообщения о результатах работы вам понадобятся следую­щие существительные: result (on, of) - результат; findings (on, of) - данные (о, по относительно); data (on, concerning, as to) - данные, сведения (о, относительно, что касается); evi­dence (for, of, on, concerning, that) - данные, доказатель­ства, свидетельства; fact (of, concerning, that) – факт.
Могут быть полезны следующие сочетания:


provide evidence for

- свидетельствовать в пользу

give strong evidence for (of)

- служить сильным аргументом в

пользу, убедительно доказывать




§ 2. С вышеуказанными существительными можно употребить следующие глаголы:

obtain - получать; give, present, provide - давать, пред­ставлять; report - сообщать; check, test, verify - про­верять; treat - обрабатывать; collect - собирать; summarize, sum up - суммировать; search for - искать; find - находить; extend to - распространять на.
§ 3. Для оценки качества полученных результатов можно использовать следующие прилагательные:

simple — простой; complicated — сложный; accurate, exact — точный; excellent, good — хороший, satisfactory — удовлет­ворительный; important — существенный, важный; contradictoryпротиворечивый; convincing — убедительный.
§ 4. При обсуждении результатов необходимо отметить, что они дают, показывают, объясняют и пр. Для этой цели можно использовать глаголы: show, indicate, demonstrate — показывать; confirm, verify — подтверждать; support — поддерживать; to speak in favour — говорить в пользу; contradict — противоречить, опровергать; prove — доказывать.
Примеры:

1. Предварительные данные, видимо, противоречат первоначальному предложению.

Preliminary data seem to contradict

the first supposition.



2. Полученные данные подтверждают значение такого эксперимента.

The results obtained confirm the importance of such an experiment.

3. По данным рентгенодифрак-тометрических исследований…

The results of an X-ray diffraction study indicate (show) that …


§ 5. Полученные данные, результаты подтверждают или опроверга­ют прежние предложения, допущения и пр. Поэтому при обсуждении результатов, вам могут понадобиться следующие лексические единицы: supposition — предположение; assumption — допущение; opinion — мнение; idea — представление; viewpoint — взгляд, точка зрения; correctness — правильность; previousпредыдущей, прежний; existing — существующий.
Задание 1. Сравните следующие пары предложений, обращая вни­мание на полученные результаты и используемую лексику в рус­ском и английском языках:


1. Приведены результаты…

The results have been given…

2. Полученные результаты подтвер-ждают

The results obtained confirm

3. Установлено, что ...

The fact of … has been established

4. Было обнаружено…

It has been found that…


Задание 2. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык и используйте их как образец для составления своих предложений.
1. Были получены предварительные результаты.

2. Никаких численных результатов не проводится.

3. Обсуждаются результаты экспериментов. Обнаружено, что они под-тверждают существующую гипотезу.

4. Аналогичные результаты были получены путем дальнейшего экспериментирования.
Задание 3. Переведите сказуемое в следующих предложениях. Напишите предложения, соблюдая порядок слов английского языка.


1. Обсуждаются

the results obtained.

2. Рассмотрены

the experimental data.

3. Наблюдались

the temperature affects.

4. Были разработаны

new methods.

Задание 4. По образцу предложений в задании 3 составьте свои предложения, используя лексику по специальности.
Задание 5. Читая раздел Summary или Result в английской статье по вашей специальности, выпишите предложения, в которых охарактеризованы полученные результаты. Сократите эти предложения, сохранив в них только группу подлежащего и сказуемого с относящимися к ним словами, составьте по их образцу свои предложения.

III. ВЫВОДЫ. ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
§ 1. Заключительные предложения рефератов часто содержат сле­дующие слова и словосочетания:

conclude — приходить к заключению (выводу); make, draw, reach a conclusion, come to a conclusion that… — делать заключение (вывод) относительно…; from the results it is concluded that… — на основании полученных результатов прихо­дим к выводу; it may be noted that — можно отметить, что…; thus, therefore, consequently, as a result — таким образом, следовательно, в результате.
§ 2. Если в реферате после сообщения о полученных результатах вы хотите дать рекомендации, совет или высказать предложения относительно возможного использования полученных результатов, новых методов и т.п., вы можете использовать следующие слова и словосочетания: suggest, recommend - предлагать, рекомендовать; make a suggestion - делать (вносить) предложение; make a suggestion as to how (when, where etc.) - делать предложение в отношении того, как (когда, где, что и т.д.); it is suggested that smth. be done - предлагается что-либо сделать; it is necessary to do smth. - необходимо (нужно) сделать что-либо.
Примеры:

1. Предлагается (рекомендуется) еще один метод обработки.

Another method of treatment is

proposed (suggested, recommended)

2. Рекомендуется новый метод очистки.

A new method of purification is

recommended (suggested)

3. Эта проблема ставится на обсуждение. Предлагается обсудить эту проблему.

The problem is suggested for

discussion.

4. Необходимо изучить это явление.

It is necessary that a more thorough study of the phenomenon – should be performed.




Задание 1. Составьте предложения, начиная их следующим образом:

  1. The author…suggests…

2. The results suggest that ... may be used..

3. It is suggested that…should be… .


Задание 2. Составьте несколько заключительных предложений реферата по вашей тематике, начиная их с:

1. It is concluded that…



2. Thus, we сan make a conclusion (a. conclusion can be made) that…

3. From the results it is concluded that…



4. It may be noted (stated) that…
Задание 3. Прочитав статью по специальности па английском язы­ке, составьте к ней краткий реферат, в котором сообщите, что изу­чалось, какая цель ставилась, какие методы использовались, какие результаты получены, какой вывод можно сделать.

ТЕКСТЫ'>ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ Ч Т Е Н И Я
ТЕКСТ 1
1. Прочтите текст, разделите его на абзацы, выделив ключевые предложения в каждом абзаце.
WHAT IS INFORMATION
The term we need to clarify is information. In the discussi­on of computers, the word information has a rather special definition. Information is a set of marks that have meaning. Physically, the set of marks is a set of physical objects or a set of arrangements of some physical equipment. Then, out of this set, a selection is made in order to communicate, to convey mea­ning. For meaning to exist, there has to be a society of at least two persons or machines, a society that requires communication, that desires to convey meaning. By convention, the so­ciety establishes the meaning of the marks. The kinds of physi­cal objects which can be used to express information are extre­mely varied. Мany different kinds of equipment inside a machine may be used to record and manipulate information. In a desk cal­culating machine, information may be stored and manipulated in small counter wheels bearing geared teeth, and usually having ten positions corresponding to the digits 0, 1, 2 up to 9. For the purposes of computing machines, information is an arrange­ment or positioning of equipment, and the social meaning of the arrangement except at the input and the output, makes no diffe­rence.
2. Проследите, как слово «информация» (ключевое слово всего текста, предельно сжато выражающее его тему) трансформируется в соответствующие эквиваленты и местоимения.
3. Подчеркните все словосочетания со словом «информация» и его эквиваленты. Выпишите словосочетания, являющиеся наиболее важны­ми с точки зрения содержания текста.
4. Сформулируйте главную идею текста.
5. Составьте краткий реферат, пользуясь рекомендациями, данными в предыдущих разделах.

ТЕКСТ 2


  1. Прочтите текст, ответьте на вопрос: «О чем этот текст?». Сфор-мулируйте его тему. Запишите ответ в 1-2 предложениях.


ILLITERATE JAPANESE
At Kameido No.3 Junior High School in northeast Tokyo, Masanobu Hyakutake is using computers to teach algebra to a class of rowdy seventh graders. Because there are 40 students in the сlass and only 12 personal computers, three or four students are crow­ded around each screen. But the computers are little more than electronic blackboards. The students habitually push the keybo­ards out of the way and gaze at numbers on the screens. When working out problems they use pencils and paper. After class, Hyaimtake admits that the students say that they enjoy their lessons more when they сan work with the computer - but that doesn't happen very often. “We just don’t have the software”, he laments.

Kameido No.3 is supposed to be a model school for computer education in Japan, but it more often illustrates the computer illiteracy that afflicts what is arguably the most technology-oriented country in the world. While Japanese primary and se­condary schools earn praise for their students’ performance in math and science, they lag behind the United States and Europe in computer education. Surveys show that although 94 percent of public high schools in Japan (and 36 percent of junior highs) have Pc’s, the vast majority are used for administrative purpo­ses - not for teaching. According to the most recent government figures available, only 10 percent of Japan’s public academic high schools have a computerized classroom. Most designated com­puter classroom lack the hardware to allow each student hands-on access; those that have a sufficient number of Pc's don’t have adequate educational software programs for the students. Masatоshi Seimiya, an administrator at CEC, says: “We are be­hind”.

rowdy — шумный

aptly — легко, надлежащим образом

to afflict — поражать, огорчать

earn praise — заслуживать похвалы
2. Объясните, в чем заключается главная мысль (идея), текста? Запишите свой ответ в I-2 предложениях.
3. Ответьте на вопрос: «Какова цель и назначение данного тек­ста?» Запишите свой ответ в 2 - 3 предложениях.


  1. Составьте краткий реферат (аннотацию) этого текста, исполь­зуя записанные предложения и рекомендации предыдущего раздела.

ТЕКСТ 3
THE FUTURE OF ENGINEERING

What will engineering be like in the future? Every now and then I think about how much it has changed over the course of my own career. If changes of a similar magnitude happen in the coming decades, what will the profession be like for today's college students?

Today we soar on the wings of computers and networking to heights where the minutiae of engineering lie indistinguishable on the ground far below. Sometimes I think of Archimedes’ lever: "Give the place to stand on, and I can move the earth" We've been given the lever and the place to stand upon, and feel that the earth is ours to move.

That feeling of empowerment is exhilarating. My worry is the price that we have paid for soaring so far above the landscape. In our profession there is a growing distancing from reality. It is like the profound feeling of disconnection I have when I stare out the window of an airplane. Those aren't real houses down there, I think, and I'm not really sitting in an aluminum tube high in the sky with no visible means of support. Why does the pilot tell me that the outside temperature is-50°C? This has no meaning to me, because the outside world is merely a diorama painted on my window. But as soon as these troubling thoughts intrude, the flight attendant's voice supervenes, telling me to lower my window shade so that I can better see the movie, substituting one form of unreality for another.

Engineering today feels like that window seat on the airplane. Those can't be real transistors and wires down there, can they? Watching the simulations on my computer monitor is like watching the movie on the airplane - an unreality wrapped in another unreality. I feel that I have lost touch with Edison's world of electricity - a world of black Bakelite meters, whirring motors, acrid chemical smells, and heated conductors. I miss Heathkits and the smell of molten solder and burning insulation -the sensual aspects of engineering that have been replaced for many of us by antiseptic, ubiquitous, and impersonal CRTs.

I have a deeper worry that math itself is slipping away into the wispy clouds of software that surround us. I walk down the aisles of laboratories, and I see engineers staring vacantly into monitors, their desks piled high with anachronistic paper detritus. Is anyone doing math by hand any longer, I wonder? Do they miss the cerebral nourishment of solving equations? Perhaps math in the future will be the exclusive province of a cult of priests that embeds its capability in shrink-wrapped, encrypted software.

I can't believe that 20 years from now engineers will still stare into displays, run CAD tools, and archive their results in Power Point. But what will they do? My deepest fear is that the reality gap becomes so great that the best-selling software will be called Engineer-in-a-Box.


ТЕКСТ 4
ROBOTS OF THE FUTURE
Does the future of robotics hold the promise of a dream come true to lighten the workload on humanity and provide companionship. Or the murder and mayhem of Hollywood movies?

When the Czech playwright Karel Capek sat down in 1920 to write a play about humanoid machines that turn against their creators, he decided to call his imaginary creations ‘robots’, from the Czech word for ‘slave labour’. Ever since then, our think­ing about robots, whether fictional or real, has been dominated by the two key ideas in Capek's play. Firstly, robots are supposed to do the boring and difficult jobs that humans can’t do or don't want to do. Secondly, robots are potentially dangerous.

These two ideas remain influential, but not everyone accepts them. The first dis­senting voice was that of the great Russian-American science-fiction writer, Isaac Asimov, who was born the same year that Capek wrote his notorious play. In 1940, barely two decades later, while others were still slavishly reworking Capek's narrative about nasty robots taking over the world, Asimov was already asking what practical steps humanity might take to avoid this fate. And instead of assuming that robots would be confined to boring and dangerous jobs, Asimov imaged a future in which robots care for our children, and strike up friendships with us.

From the perspective of the early twenty-first century, it might seem that Capek was right and that Asimov was an idealistic dreamer. After all, most currently-existing robots are confined to doing nasty, boring and dangerous jobs, right? Wrong. Accord­ing to the 2003 World Robotics Survey produced by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, over a third of all the robots in the world are designed not to spray-paint cars or mow the lawn, but simply to entertain humans. And the number is rising fast. It is quite possible, then, that the killer apt for robots will turn out to be not the slave labour envisaged by Capek, but the social compan­ionship imagined by Asimov.

The most impressive entertainment robot currently on the market is undoubtedly the Aibo, a robotic dog produced by Sony. According to Qnroho.com, a website de­voted to home and entertainment robotics, Aibo is the standard by which all other en­tertainment robots are measured. Special software allows each Aibo to learn and de­velop its own unique personality as it interacts with its owner. But at over a thousand pounds a shot, they aren't cheap.

Commercial products like the Aibo still have some way to go before they have the quasi-human capacities of 'Robbie', the child-caring robot envisaged by Asimov in one of his earliest short-stories, but the technology is moving fast. Scientists around the world are already beginning to develop the components for more ad­vanced sociable robots, such as emotional recognition systems and emotional ex­pression systems.

Emotions are vital to human interaction, so any robot that has to interact naturally with a human will need to be able to recognize human expressions of emotion and to express its own emotions in ways that humans can recognize. One of the pioneers in this area of research (which is known as 'affective computing) is Cynthia Breazeal, a roboticist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has built an emotionally-expressive humanoid head called Kismet, Kismet has moveable eyelids, eyes and lips which allow me to make a variety of emotional expressions. When left atone, Kismet looks sad, but when he detects a human face he smiles, inviting attention. If the carier moves too fast, a look of fear warns that something is wrong. Human parents who play with Kismet cannot help but respond sympathetically to these simple forms of emotional behavior.

Another emotionally-expressive robot called WE-4R has been built by Atsuo Takanishi and colleagues at Waseda University in Japan. Whereas Kismet is limited to facial expressions and head movements, WE-4R can also move its torso and wave its arms around to express its emotions.

The gap between science fiction and science fact is closing, and closing fast. In fact, the technology is advancing so quickly that some people are already worried about what will happen when robots become as emotional as we are. Will they turn against their creators, as Capek predicted? In the new Hollywood blockbuster, I, Ro­bot (which is loosely based on an eponymous collection of Asimov's short stories), Will Smith plays a detective investigating the murder of a famous scientist. Despite the fail-safe mechanism built into the robots, which prevents them from harming hu­mans, the detective suspects that the scientist was killed by a robot. His investigation leads him to discover an even more serious threat to the human race.

I, Robot is set in the year 2035, thirty one years in the future. To get an idea of how advanced robots will be by then, think about how far videogames have come in the last thirty one years. Back in 1973, the most advanced videogame was Pong, in which a white dot representing a tennis ball was batted back and forth across a black screen. The players moved the bats up and down by turning the knobs on the game console. By today's standards, the game was incredibly primitive. That's how today's robots will look to people in the year 2035.

Will those future people look back at the primitive robots of 2007 and wish they hadn’t advanced any further? If we want to avoid the nightmare scenario of a battle between humans and robots, we should start thinking about how to ensure that ro­bots remain safe even when they are more intelligent. Isaac Asimov suggested that we could make sure robots don't become dangerous by programming them to follow the following ‘Three Robot Laws':

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction allow a human being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

At first blush, these three laws might seem like a good way to keep robots in their place. But to a roboticist they pose more problems than they solve. Asimov was well aware of this, and many of his short stories revolve around the contradictions and dilemmas implicit in the three laws.

The sobering conclusion that emerges from these stories is that preventing intel­ligent robots from harming humans will require something much more complex than simply programming them to follow the three laws.

Note on the Author: Dr Dylan Evans teaches robotics at the University of the West of England, Bristol.


ТЕКСТ 5
THE BOLT THAT HOLDS THE IKEA EMPIRE TOGETHER
Ingvar Kamprad is no ordinary multi-billionaire. The founder of the Ikea furniture empire travels economy class, drives a 10-year-old Volvo and buys his fruit and vegetables in the afternoons, when prices are often cheaper. Ask him about the luxuries in his life and he says: ‘From time to time, I like to buy a nice shirt and cravat and eat Swedish caviar’.

Mr. Kamprad is one of Europe’s greatest post-war entrepreneurs. What began as a mail-order business in 1943 has grown into an international retailing phenomenon across 31 countries, with 70,000 employees.

Sales have risen every single year. The Ikea catalogue is the world’s biggest annual print run – an incredible 110m copies a year. And Mr. Kamprad has grown extraordinarily rich. He is worth $13.4bn and is the 17th richest person in the world, according to Forbes, the US magazine.

The concept behind Ikea’s amazing success is unbelievably simple: make affordable, well-designed furniture available to the masses. And then there is Mr. Kamprad himself – charismatic, humble, private. It is his ideas and values that are at the core of Ikea’s philosophy.


Best known for his extremely modest lifestyle, he washes plastic cups to recycle them. He has just left his long-standing Swedish barber because he found one in Switzerland, where he lives, who charges only SFr14 for a cut. ‘That’s a reasonable amount,’ he chuckles.

All Ikea executives are aware of the value of cost-consciousness. They are strongly discouraged from traveling first or business class. ‘There is no better form of leadership than setting a good example. I could never accept that I should travel first class while my colleagues sit in tourist class,’ Mr. Kamprad says.

As he walks around the group’s stores, he expresses the feeling of ‘togetherness’ physically, clasping and hugging his employees. This is very uncharacteristic of Sweden. ‘Call me Ingvar,’ he says to staff. The informality and lack of hierarchy are emphasized by his dress style, with an open-necked shirt preferred to a tie.

Mr. Kamprad has had both personal and business battles. He has fought against dyslexia and illness.

One of Mr. Kamprad’s characteristics is his obsessive attention to detail. When he visits his stores, he talks not only to the managers but also to floor staff and customers. A recent visit to six of the group’s Swedish stores has produced ‘100 details to discuss’, he says.

By his own reckoning, his greatest strength is choosing the right people to run his business.

He is determined that the group will not go public, because short-term shareholder demands conflict with long-term planning. ‘I hate short-termist decisions. If you want to take long-lasting decisions, it’s very difficult to be on the stock exchange. When entering the Russian market, we had to decide to lose money for 10 years.’

Mr Kamprad has been slowly withdrawing from the business since 1986, when he stepped down as group president. He maintains that he is still ‘too much involved and in too many details’, although he admits to a distinct reluctance to withdraw altogether.

The question is: can there be an eternal Ikea without Mr. Kamprad? Does the group depend too much on its founder? Will the empire continue, as control of Ikea gradually moves to Mr. Kamprad’s three sons?

From the Financial Times


ТЕКСТ 6
COMPUTER VIRUSES AND CRIME
Computer virus is a portion of a program code that has been designed to copy itself into other such codes or computer files. It is usually created by vandals to effect a result or to destroy data and program code.

A virus consists of a set of instructions that attaches itself to other computer programs, usually in the computer's operating system, and becomes part of them. In most cases, the corrupted programs continue to perform their intended functions but surreptitiously execute the virus's instructions as well. A virus is usually designed to execute when it is loaded into a computer's memory. Upon execution, the virus instructs its host program to copy the viral code into any number of other programs and files stored in the computer. The infection can then transfer itself to files and code on other computers through magnetic disks or other memory – storage devices, computer networks, or online systems. The replicating viruses often multiply until they destroy data or make other program codes meaningless. A virus may simply cause a harmless joke or cryptic message to appear on a computer monitor each time the computer is turned on. A more damaging virus can break an extremely large computer system within a matter of minutes or hours, causing it to crash and thereby destroy valuable data.

Computer viruses are simply small programs that insert themselves into program files and boot sectors. Most are activated when you run the infected program or boot from an infected disk, and they immediately start replicating themselves by looking for new files and boot sectors to infect. Like real germs, the most successful and prevalent computer viruses do little except hide, reproduce, and wait for the opportunity to spread to other PCs.

The computer viruses we fear most – those that destroy files, format hard disks or make them unbootable or corrupt BIOS settings – are relatively rare. They usually don't spread as rapidly as lethal bugs because they do such a dandy job of disrupting their host – your hard disk, which you may have to format, wiping out the viruses in the process.

It is useful to set the write-protect tab on floppies when you're not actively writing to them, and don't leave floppies in the drive. Viruses that spread by infecting the system area of a floppy disk are the most common, and some even periodically check the floppy drive for an easy victim.

Now we can assume: computer viruses are everywhere. Here's how to keep your computer from "catching a cold," and what to do if it does.

There's no question that every computer user should have some sort of virus scanning software – programs that can help prevent your computer from contracting a virus and wipe one out if necessary.

Contracting a virus can be simple, it’s all a matter of introducing an infected file onto your computer system. And today, more types of files can be infected than ever before.

Since the first reported case of computer abuse in 1958, computers have been involved in most types of crimes, including theft, burglary, sabotage, espionage, kidnapping, and murder. Computer systems themselves can be the targets of attack, as when a computer virus is surreptitiously introduced into a system to alter or destroy data. Breaking into private computer systems to destroy, steal, or alter information became easier once modems were introduced in the 1960s. Most serious computer crimes, however, are committed in the banking and financial-service industries, where money, credit, and other financial assets are recorded in electronic databases and are transmitted as signals over telephone lines. Persons with access to such systems may falsify or manipulate these records for their own purposes by, for example, illegally transferring money balances to their own accounts.

So, in order to be protected from computer viruses and crime, a person should have modern antiviral software and some knowledge in protecting PC from internal and external invasion.


ТЕКСТ 7
POWERFUL STORAGE
Researchers have discovered a new material that could improve digital storage in the future.

Thanks to advancements in technology, people can now do more and more with their gadgets. Mobile phones, for example, are no longer just for talking - they can be used to listen to music, take photos and soon even to watch movies. But this also means that new sources of power will be required to accommodate the technology - and at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a team of researchers led by Prof. Prashant Kumta has recently synthesized a new material that can store more energy than the super capacitors used today.

Unlike a battery where energy is stored in a chemical form, a super capacitor is an elec­trical device that stores energy in an electric field. This field is generated by negative and positive plates in the capacitor - and their "super" status comes from their ability to hold four times as much charge as a normal capacitor.

Currently, supercapacitors are made from ruthenium oxide but the high price of this compound limits their use in a wide range of technologies. They are most useful in applica­tions like hybrid cars and robotics where a large, fast pulse of energy is required. Compared to a normal battery, a supercapacitor can also last much longer.

The new material - called nanocrystalline vanadium nitride - could be a viable alterna­tive to ruthenium oxide. It has a capacitance that is almost two times greater and can also store energy for longer. The structure of the material has two layers: it has an outer shell of vanadium oxide and an inner core of vanadium nitride. This set-up enables energy storage be­cause of electrochemical reactions that occur on the vanadium oxide surface - which generate an electric charge. The vanadium nitride interior stores the charge generated.

To create this new material, nanocrystals were made by a method described by Kumta as "simple and novel", where vanadium chloride is reacted with ammonia, at 400 degrees C, in an environment without water. The final product is a material made up of tiny nanocrystals six nanometers wide, and is particularly interesting because it combines the good electric conductivity of vanadium nitride with vanadium's many oxidation states in vanadium oxide.

But the main advantage of vanadium nitride is its price. According to Prof. Ian Boyd, Executive Director at the London Center for Nanotechnology, although ruthenium oxide ex­hibits some of the most desirable properties for supercapacitors, such as constant capacitance, reversibility, and cycle times running into the hundreds and thousands cycles, the main prob­lem is that it is very expensive. Ruthenium oxide costs $100 per gram whereas vanadium ni­tride is priced at $50 per gram.

The researchers are confident that this new material will be cheaper, more stable and a higher quality material for energy storage in the future. Prof. Kumta says that this nanomaterial is key to creating the next generation of super capacitors, and will be used in everything from cars, camcorders and lawn mowers to industrial backup power systems at hospitals and airports.


ТЕКСТ 8
THE INTERNET ECOLOGY
Foraging for food seems to be a straightforward propo­sition: if you’re a hunter, you hunt; if you're a gatherer, you gather: then you eat. What could be simpler? Well, plenty of things, because, as it turns out, foraging is a complex business. In fact, a whole foraging theory was developed in the 1970s to explain animal foraging patterns and strategies. At its core is the idea of a cost-benefit analysis in which an animal examines the available food {the benefit) and weighs the amount of energy required to obtain it (the cost).

The theory also tells us that ani­mals will move to a new area as soon as the costs of foraging in the current one become too high rela­tive to the remaining benefits. Selected by evolution over millennia, the techniques are hard-wired into animal brains.

We humans have these foraging mech­anisms installed in our own brains. That fact was the inspiration for the theory of information foraging, a con­cept that has generated a number of interesting new words. In the early 1990s, Peter Pirelli and Stuart Card of Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in California observed that tracking down information was analogous to foraging for food, so they tried applying foraging theory to information hunting and gath­ering. Their results showed that information seekers do use the same strategies as food foragers. In their cost-benefit analysis, the benefit is the information they seek and the cost is the time it takes to find it. And once the costs of the current information patch outweigh whatever benefits are left, they move on to a dif­ferent Web site or database.

Also, like food foragers, information foragers rely on "cues" that tell them whether a particular patch contains the data they seek. When animals are foraging for food, they often use scent to determine whether a particular area is worth investigating. Hunters, for example, will sniff around for evidence that prey has been in the area. Web searchers do something similar by examining a site's information scent: the visual and linguistic cues — researchers call this the residue — that enable a searcher to deter­mine whether a source has the information they seek, as well as to navigate to the desired data.

On arriving at a site, for example, someone looking for device drivers will hunt for a supportive link labeled "Downloads" or, even better, "Device Drivers." Labels such as "Products" and" Purchase" aren’t as promising – that is, they don't give off a good information scent. Another foraging cue is the existence of footprints, which are traces left by other foragers who have traversed die same virtual path. In the Amazon.com niche, for instance, footprints occur all over the place: reader reviews, ratings, and even lists of other books purchased by people who bought the current book.

Pirolli, Card, and others at Xerox PARC are continuing this research, which is now part of a larger idea: called the Internet ecology, the relationship and interactions between people and the online environment, in particular the Web. New words and phrases abound in the Internet ecology, where people aren't users, but informators, consumers of information, who have highly specific information diets. The satisfied {satisfy and suffice] their info, mat) on needs by foraging within the information food chain.


ТЕКСТ 9
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  • Study
  • Analyze
  • Describe
  • Obtain
  • Compute
  • Задание
  • Задание 2
  • Задание 4.
  • ТЕКСТЫ
  • ТЕКСТ