Материалы для чтения the four freedoms as part of europeanization process: conditions and effectiveness of the eu impact

Главная страница
Контакты

    Главная страница



Материалы для чтения the four freedoms as part of europeanization process: conditions and effectiveness of the eu impact



страница75/83
Дата03.07.2018
Размер6,49 Mb.


1   ...   71   72   73   74   75   76   77   78   ...   83
782 А.Рябушев, С.Сергиевский. Калининград в блокаде // Независимая газета, 17.05.2002.

783 О.Минаева. Калининградская область. Янтарный край в европейской оправе // Аргументы и факты, № 24 (1129), 12 июня 2002 г.

784 Орхан Джемаль. Окно в Европу, или проходной двор // Новая газета, № 33р (802), 3-9 сентября 2002 г. Стр.4.

785 Christopher S.Browning. The Internal/External Security Paradox and the Reconstruction of Boundaries in the Baltic: The Case of Kaliningrad. COPRI Working Paper, at http://www.copri.dk

786 Стенограмма выступления Министра иностранных дел России И.С.Иванова на пресс-конференции по итогам работы XI сессии СГБМ 5 марта 2002 г., г.Светлогорск, http://www.ln.mid.ru


787Калининград сравнили с Гонконгом, http://www.utro.ru/news/print/2002042913245675855.shtml

788 На саммите решают судьбу Калининграда, http://www.dni.ru/print.html?id=10199

789 http://www.izvestia.ru/print/?id=17535

790 В.Иванов. Спешка нужна только при ловле блох // Маяк Балтики, № 36 (36), 24 октября 2002 г. Стр.5.

791 Г.Лосев. Калининградский эксклав: споры о пилотности региона // Российский региональный бюллетень. Москва: Институт “Восток-Запад”, № 24, декабрь 2001 г.

792 М.Рубченко, Е.Шохина, С.Шошкин. Точки роста, или чёрные дыры // Эксперт, № 28 (335), 22 июля 2002 г.

Патрик Тайлер. В российском анклаве властвует коррупция, http://www.inopressa.ru/details.htm?id=1520

793 Калининград: как это будет по-прусски? // Комсомольская правда, 10 июля 2002 г.

794 С.Митрофанов. Способ стать общеевропейцем, http://www.smi.ru/print/?id=469666

795 Н.Стеклов. Капля в море // Российская газета, 25.07.2001

796 Ю.Солодухин. Калининградская область в свете новых геополитических реалий, http://www.csr-nw.ru/publications.php?code=157

797 Noel Parker. Integrated Europe and Its ‘Margins’: Action and Reactions. In: Margins in European Integration. Edited by Noel Parker and Bill Armstrong. Macmillan Press and St.Martin’s Press, 2000. Pp. 3-8.

798 Christopher Browning, Pertti Joenniemi. Contending Discourses of Marginality: the Case of Kaliningrad. Copenhagen: Institute for International Relations and Human Rights, 2003.

799 Edward Newman. "Human Security and Constructivism" // International Studies Perspectives, N 2, 2001. P. 239.

800 Gunnar Lassinantti. "Toward a Broader Security Concept in North Europe". In: "Security in the European North. From "Hard" to "Soft". Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre, University of Lapland & The Olof Palme International Center: Arctic Centre Reports: 32, 1999. P. 111.

801 П.Катин. Бином Паксаса // Маяк Балтики, № 6 (51), 2003. Стр.3.

802 Хайнц Тиммерманн. Калининградская область в контексте регионального сотрудничества // Мировая экономика и международные отношения, № 2, 2001.

803 Pertti Joenniemi, Stephen Dewar and Lyndelle D.Fairlie. The Kaliningrad Puzzle; A Russian Region within the European Union. Copenhagen: COPRI Working Paper N 6, 2000. P.4.

804 Pertti Joenniemi. Can Europe Be Told From the North? Tapping into the EU’s Northern Dimension. COPRI Working Paper 12/2002. Pp. 5,11.

805 Sven Arnswald and Mathias Joop. The Implications of Baltic Ststes’ EU Membership. Programme of the Northern Dimension of the CFSP, 2001. P.91.

806 Lyndelle D.Fairlie. The EU’s Northern Dimension and Kaliningrad. Conflict Studies Research Centre G78, July 1999. P.17.

807 Jakub Godzimirski. Soviet Legacy and Baltic Security: The Case of Kaliningrad. In: Stability and Security in the Baltic Sea Region. Russian. Nordic and European Aspects. Edited by Olav F.Knudsen. London & Portland: Frank Cass, 1999. P.48.

808 Zdislaw Mach. Heritage, Dream, and Anxiety: the European Identity of Poles. In: European Enlargement and Identity. Cracow: Universitas, 1997. Pp. 41.

809 Slawomir Majman. Borderlands // Voice – Viewpoint, April 20, 2003. P. 26; Wyjsc poza utopie // Tygodnik Powszechny, N 18, 4 maja 2003. P.18.

810 Gazeta Wyborcza, 10 czerwca 2003. P.1.

811 Д.Горностаев. Польша готова вернуть Европу во времена постоянного страна // Польша.ру. 17.05.01

812 Blizej Polski // Rzeczpospolita, N 102 (6482), 2-4 maja 2003.

813 Ариста Циртаутас. Польша // Конституционное право: восточноевропейское обозрение. № 4 (33), 2000 - № 1 (34), 2001. Стр.48.

814 Adam Michnik. Jak byc w Iraku // Gazeta wyborcza, 6 maja 2003. P.1.

815 Klaus Bachman. Miedzy ironia a zachwytem // Rzeczpospolita, 6 maja 2003. P.A10.

816 Dmitry Polyviannyi. Considering the EU Enlargement to the East and Its Consequences for Russia: Are the Generalizations Really Productive? In: Russia – the European Union: Interaction Without Strategy?”. Edited by Andreas Goldthau and Pavel Onokhine. Ekaterinburg, 2003. P.73.

817 Rzeczowy przeglad prasy // Rzeczpospolita, N 104 (6484), 6 maja 2003. P.2.

818 Ibid.

819 Olaf Osica. Przerwa na obiad. Po Wawelu, Petersburgu, Evian i Akabie // Tygodnik powczechny, N 24, 15 czerwca 2003. P.3.

820 Ilya Prizel. National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Cambridge University Press, 1998. P.120.

821 Piotr Jendroszczyk. Europa wedlug Rumsfelda // Rzeczpospolita, N 136 (6516), 12 czerwca 2003. P.A6.

822 Jacek Zakowski. Nasz ciezki kawalek Iraku // Polityka, N 20 (2401), 17 maja 2003. P.30.

823 Angelika Schwall-Durren. Czy Polska wie, co robi? // Rzeczpospolita, N 104 (6484), 6 maja 2003. P.A4.

824 Pawel Wronski. Polska chce s Niemcamy // Gazeta wyborcza, 6 maja 2003. P.1.

825 Do wyboru strefa i partnerzy // Rzeczpospolita, N 104 (6484), 6 maja 2003. P.A4.

826 Krystyna Grzybowska. Aragancja jako wyraz bezsilnosci // Rzeczpospolita, 6 maja 2003. P.A10.

827 Pawel Wronski. Niemeckie frustracje // Gazeta wyborcza, 6 maja 2003. P.2.

828 Rewolucja sila przeprowadzana // Tygodnik powszechny, N 18, 4 maja 2003. Pp. 1,7.

829 Anna Pawlowska. Plan B Leszka Millera // Acta Europea, numer 6, maj-czerwiec 2003. P.17.

830 Wojciech Kostecki. Poland’s Security Policies in the Baltic Sea Area. In: The NEBI Yearbook 1998. North European and Baltic Sea Integration. Edited by Lars Hedegaard and Bjarne Lindstrom. Springer, 1999. P. 498.

831 Е.Белецкий. Будущее Калининграда. Коридор через Польшу и Литву, http://www.csr-nw.ru/publications.php?code=326

832 http://www.politcom.ur/print.php?fname

833 Bartosz Cichocki, Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz, Andrzej Wilk. The Kaliningrad Oblast in the Context of EU Enlargement // CES Studies, N 2, July 2001. Warsaw: Center for Eastern Studies. Pp. 53-62.

834 В.Никонов: “В Сочи состоится первый серьёзный разговор о Калининграде с лидером одной из главных стран ЕС”, http://www.strana.ru/print/153184.html

835 Лев Бруни. Калининградские козыри, http://www.vesti.ru/printed/1022753640.html

836 С.Михайлов, А.Угланов. Калининградская область: транспортный коридор в обмен на атомную станцию // Аргументы и факты, № 25 (1130), 19 июня 2002 г.

837 Tomasz Paszewski. Poland Stands Ready to Forge a New Relationship with Kaliningrad. In: Kaliningrad: Growth Centre or Dead End? Baltic Development Forum & Monday Morning. Vol.2, June 2002. P.31.

838 А.Кузнецов. Расширение ЕС и Калининградская область // Мировая экономика и международные отношения, № 2, 2001.

839 Все наши беды от соседей, www.btime.ru, 27.04.2001

840 Калининград: евромост или евротупик? Доклад. Москва: Комитет «Россия в объединённой Европе», 2002. Стр.40.

841 А.Чичкин. Калининград окружат колючей европроволокой? http://www.gazetasng.ru/print.php/id=32966

842 ЕС разводит Россию в тёмную, http://www.apn.ru/lenta/2002/7/25/19933

843 http://www.strana.ru/print/149680.html

844 Фёдор Лукьянов. Там, где кончается история // Политбюро, 14 апреля 2003 г. Стр.23.

845 Пертти Юенниеми. Два измерения Европейского Союза: северное и восточное // Европа. Журнал польского института международных дел. Том 3, № 1 (6), 2003. Стр.153-154.

846 Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz, Alexander Duleba, Laszlo Poti, Vladimir Votapek. Eastern Policy of the EU: the Visegrad Countries’ Perspective. Warszawa: Centre for Eastern Studies, February 2003, at http://www.osw.waw.pl/pub/punkt/0301/PUNKT_WIDZENIA.pdf

847 А.Гриценко, Л.Поляков. Украина – НАТО: будущее в руках у прошлого // Зеркало недели, № 26 – 27 (451-452), 12 июля 2003 г. Стр.5.

848 Корреспондент, 8 июля 2003 г. Стр.11.

849 Anatoly Halchynsky. Central European Renovation // The Day, N 22, 2003. P.4.

850 ГУУАМ: второе дыхание или на ладан дышание? // 2000 Форум, 11 июля 2003 г. Стр.А2.

851 П.Святенков. Расширение Европы и его последствия // Консерватор, № 15 (31), 25 апреля – 1 мая 2003 г. Стр.3.

852 Георгий Кунадзе. Заметки идеалиста // Новое время, № 23, 2003. Стр.30.

853 Vasiliy Valuev. EU Enlargement and Kaliningrad: Bringing or Bridging Possible New Divisions. In: Russia – The European Union: Interaction Without Strategy? Edited by Andreas Goldthau and Pavel Onokhine. Ekaterinburg: 2003. P.78; Vasiliy Valuev. Russian Border Policies and Border Regions. Copenhagen: COPRI Working Papers 36/2002.

854 Профиль, № 3 (273), 21 января 2002 г.

855 Польша.ру, 26.12.2002

856 Надежда Хворостухина. Балтика экспортирует стабильность // Балтийская газета, № 26 (94), 2003 г.

857 Пертти Юенниеми. “Два измерения Европейского Союза: северное и восточное” // Европа. Журнал польского института международных дел. Том 3, № 1 (6), 2003. Стр. 147-148.

858 Christopher Browning, Pertti Joenniemi. “The Identity of Kaliningrad: Russian, European or a Third Space?” In: New Frontiers of Europe: Opportunities and Challenges. Edited by Irina Busygina. Moscow: MGIMO, 2003. Pp.142-148.

859 Stephan Stetter, Thomas Diez, Mathias Albert. The European Union and the Transformation of Border Conflicts: Theorising the Impact of Integration and Association. Paper for presentation at the CEEISA/ISA Convention, Central European University, Budapest, 26-28 June 2003.

860 Л.Смирнягин. "Культура русского пространства" // Космополис, № 2, зима 2002-2003. Стр. 54.

861 В.Е.Хвощев. "Изменяющаяся Россия: проблемы безопасности и пограничной политики" // Полис, № 6, 2002. Стр. 182.

862 Dmitri Trenin. The End of Eurasia: Russia on the Border Between Geopolitics and Globalization. Carnegie Moscow Center, 2001. P. 319.

863 http://antropotok.archipelag.ru/keys2/keys2-0.htm

864 http://www.vremyamn.ru/cgi-bin/2000/977/3/1.html

865 http://www.prometa.ru

866 http://www.nizhny.ru/report29832

867 Fillipova, Elena. "Polozhenie migrantov v Rossii – pravo i real’nost" (Position of migrants in Russia - law and reality), at http://www.golos.ru.

868 Vitkovskaya, Galina. "Vynuzhdennie migranty iz novykh nezavisimykh gosudarstv na rossiiskom rynke truda" (Forced migrants from newly independent states in Russian labour market), at http://pubs.carnegie.ru/books/1998/10gv/toc.asp.

869 Izvestia, 20 September 2000, p. 2.

870 http://www.pfo.ru/main/news.phtml?id=1310

871 “Nezavisimaya gazeta” Web site, at http://regions.ng.ru/printed/club-89/2000-04-11/5_ecodemo.html.

872 Kirillova, Elena. "Ukrainskie trudovie migranty v Rossii" (Ukrainian labour migrants in Russia), at http://pubs.carnegie.ru/books/1998/10gv/toc.asp.

873 Itogi, May 29, 2001. P.39.

874 http://antropotok.archipelag.ru

875 S.Artobolevskii, I.Badyshgova, Zh.Zaionchkovskaia, D.Mukhmanov, N.Mkrtchan. "Migratsionnaia situatsia v PFO" (Migration in the Volga Federal District), at http://antropotok.archipelag.ru/keys1/keys1-1.htm

876 N.Gorodetskaia, Yu.Shestoperova, D.Ermakov. "Zakhodite k nam na ogoniok" (Welcome to see us) // Politbiuro, N 15 (26), 14.04 - 20.04.2003. P.55.

877 http://www.infonet.nnov.ru/nsn/arch/mess.phtml?mess_id=119769

878 Slavoj Zizek. Da Capo senza Fine, in: Contingency, Hegemony, Universality. Contemporary Dialogue on the Left. Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Zizek. London & New York: Verso, 2000. P.231.

879 Remizov 2001a.

880 Kholmogorov 2002.

881 Shimov 2001.

882 Aalto 2004, p.10.

883 Lukianov 2004.

884 Neufeld 1995, p.81.

885 Foucault 1972.

886 Neumann 1998, p.223.

887 Joenniemi 2004, p.4.

888 V uzlakh … 2001.

889 Pavlovskii 2004.

890 Smith 1998, p.188.

891 Communication from the … 2004.

892 Karabeshkin and Wellmann 2004, p.7.

893 Iliyn 2003.

894 Kazin 2002.

895 Wennersten 1999, pp. 273-281.

896 Zamiatin 2001, p. 127.

897 Medvedev 1998, pp. 44-61.

898 Schlogel 2003.

899 Morozov 2003b.

900 Wallace 2003, p.8.

901 RosBiznesKonsalting Agency, March 25, 2003, www.rbc.ru

902 Zamiatin 2004.

903 Schlegel 2003.

904 Bordachov 2004, p.2.

905 Hyndle and Kutysz 2002, p. 48.

906 Sutela 2005, p.24.

907 Rasmussen 2005, p.19.

908 Stavrakakis 1999, p.79.

909 Morozov 2003a.

910 Rossiya kak Novaya Evropa…

911 Russkaya Evropa… 2004.

912 Krylov 2002.

913 Nifontov 2002.

914 Remizov 2001b.

915 Pereslegin 2004.

916 Chto takoe Evropa (What is Europe), http://udod.traditio.ru/euro.htm

917 Remizov 2001a.

918 Rossiya kak Novaya Evropa…

919 Karaganov 2004a.

920 Privalov 2004.

921 Vol’nov, Andrey (2004), Panskie ambitsii, Rossiiskie vesti, April 28 – May 11, http://www.rosvesty.ru/numbers/1724/europe/article_43.phtml

922 Bukharin 2001.

923 Kazin 2003.

924 Ibid.

925 Cichocki, Cichocki and Kowal 2002.

926 Bukharin 2004.

927 Strana.ru, October 10, 2004.

928 Nezavisimaya gazeta, November 17, 2004.

929 “Echo Moskvy” Radio web site, April 28, 2004, http://www.echo.msk.ru/interview/1.html

930 Center for Political Conjuncture web site, June 28, 2004, http://www.ancentr.ru/portal/printout2056.html

931 http://www.strana.ru/print/147360.html

932 Interview with Erhard Kromme, Izvestia, October 30, 2003, p.4.

933 Baev 2004.

934 Dugin 2003.

935 Ekho Moskvy Radio, April 28, 2004, http://www.echo.msk.ru/interview/1.html

936 Okara, Andrey. Kakaya Evropa nuzhna Rossii (What kind of Europe Russia needs?), http://nationalism.org/library/publicism/okara/okara-what-europe.htm

937 Zizek 1989, p.169.

938 Ibid, p.172.

939 Zizek 2002, p.10.

940 Ibid, p.170.

941 Ibid, p.170.

942 Munkler 1996.

943 The Zizek Reader 1999, p.21.

944 Wider Europe – Neighborhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Commission of the European Communities, COM(2003) 104 final, Brussels, 11.03.2003. P.4.

945 Common Strategy of the European Union of June 4 1999 on Russia (1999/414/CFSP), Official Journal of the European Communities, 24.6.1999.

946 Report of the High-Level Group on the common European economic space, Tenth EU-Russia Summit, Brussels, 11 November 2002, http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/russia/summit_11_02/eespace.htm

947 The Enlarged European Union and its Eastern Neighbours: Problems and Solutions. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies, Policy Briefs, October 2003.

948 Wider Europe – Neighborhood… P.6.

949 Main Lines of a Joint EU/Russia Action Plan on the Common Spaces (EU Draft). Meeting doc. 103/04 Rev4. Commission/Secretariat, 28.04.04.

950 European Neighborhood Policy… p.4.

951 Michael Emerson. The painful EU – Russia summit in Rome. Centre for European Policy Studies, January 2005, http://www.ceps.be/wp.php?article_id=132

952 Yurii Lotman. Struktura khudozhestvennogo teksta (Structure of Artistic Texts). Moscow: Iskusstvo Publishers, 1970. P.21.

953 Jon Short. Outside of Power? Or The Power of the Outside, Journal of Social and Political Thought, vol.1, N 2, June 2000, http://www.yorku.ca/jspot/2/jshort.htm

954 Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on relations with Russia, COM(2004)106, 09/02/04.

955 12th EU – Russia Summit, Rome, 6 November 2003, 13990/03 (Presse 313), p.6.

956 William Wallace. Looking After the Neighborhood: Responsibilities for the EU-25. Groupement d’Etudes et de Recherches “Notre Europe”, Policy Paper N 4, July 2003. P.5.

957 European Parliament resolution on “Wider Europe – Neighborhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours”, COM(2003), 104-2003/2018(INI).

958 Draft Report on EU – Russia relations, 2004/2170(INI). Committee on Foreign Affairs. Rapporteur: Cecilia Malstrom. European Parliament, 2004.

959 Yannis Stavrakakis. Lacan and the Political. London – New York: Routledge, 1999. P.79.

960 Anna Marie Smith. Laclau and Mouffe: the radical democratic imaginary. London – New York: Routledge, 1998. P.78.

961 Joint Press Release on the IV Northern Dimension Ministerial Meeting, held in Brussels on 21 November 2005, http://ue.eu.int?Newsroon

962 Gilles Deleuze. Pourparlers, 1972-1990. Les Editions de Minuit, 1990. P.226-227.

963 Timothy W.Luke. MegaMetaphorics: Re-reading Globalization, Sustainability, and Virtualization as Rhetorics of Word Politics, http://www.cddc.vt.edu/tim/tims/Tim684.htm

964 Rodrigo Tavares. Contribution of macro-regions to the construction of peace: a framework of analysis, Journal of International Relations and Development, vol.7, N 1, April 2004, p.28.

965 George Dura. Presentation of the Wider Europe Matrix, Centre for European Policy Studies, 8 March 2004, http://www.ceps.be/Article.php?article_id=297&

966 Pertti Joenniemi. The EU’s New Neighbourhood Policy: Probing the Impact in Europe’s North and South, in: Andrey Makarychev (ed.). The European Union and Russia’s North West: a Playground for Innovations? Nizhny Novgorod Linguistic University, 2005.

967 Judith Butler. The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford University Press, 1997. P.22.

968 Rex Butler. What is a Master-Signifier, http://www.lacan.com/zizek-signifier.htm

969 What is a Paradigm? A lecture of Giorgio Agamben, August 2002, http://www.europeangraduateschool.de/faculty/agamben/agamben-what-is-a-paradigm-2002.html

970 Yurii Lotman. Op.cit. P.91.

971 Yurii Lotman. Op.cit. P.82.

972 Slavoj Zizek. The Fragile Absolute – or, why is the Christian legacy worth fighting for? London & New York: Verso, 2000. P.52.

973 Slavoj Zizek. The Ticklish Subject. The Absent Centre of Political Ontology. London – New York: Verso, 1999. P.108.

974 Giorgio Agamben. Homo Sacer. Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford University Press, 1998. P. 24.

975 Giorgio Agamben. Op.cit.

976 Felix Sergeev. Vostochnaya politika ES i perspektivy Rossii (EU’s Eastern Policy and Russia’s Perspectives), in: Postsovetskoe prostranstvo: model’ dlia sborki (Post-Soviet Space: a Model for Assemblage). Moscow: National Strategy Institute and APN Agency, 2005. P. 180.

977 Pertti Joenniemi. The EU’s New Neighborhood Policy: Probing the Impact in Europe’s North and South, in: The EU and Russia’s North-West: a Playground for Innovations? Ed.by Andrey Makarychev. Nizhny Novgorod University Press, 2005.

978 Pekka Sutela. EU, Russia, and Common Economic Space. Bank of Finland, BOFIT – Institute for Economies in Transition, BOFIT Online, N 3, 2005. P.24.

979 Niels Aadal Rasmussen. The EU Enlargement Eastwards and the ESDP. DIIS Report 2005:7. Danish Institute for International Studies, April 2005. P.19.

980 Pavel Erokhine. Common Economic Misperceptions, Moscow Times, 14 April 2005, issue 3146, p.8.

981 Hiski Haukkala. A Hole in the Wall? Dimensionalism and the EU’s “New Neighbourhood Policy”. UPI Working Papers 41 (2003), the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. P.18.

982 Hiski Hauskkala. The Relevance of Norms and Values in the EU’s Russia Policy. UPI Working Papers 52 (2005), the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. P.13.

983 Rossiya i Evropa: k novoi povestke dnia (Russia and Europe: Towards a New Agenda). Theses of the Council on Foreign & Defense Policy, http://www.svop.ru

984 Jean Baudrillard. L’echange symbolique et la mort, Gallimard, 1976.

985 Country Strategy Paper 2002-2006, National Indicative Programme 2002-2003, Russian Federation. December 27, 2001.

986 Wider Europe – Neighborhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Commission of the European Communities, COM(2003) 104 final, Brussels, 11.03.2003

987 Paving the way for a New Neighbourhood Instrument. Communication from the Commission. Commission of the European Communities, COM(2003) 393 final, Brussels, 1 July 2003.

988 European Neighborhood Policy. Strategic Paper. Communication from the Commission. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 12.5.2004, COM(2004)373final.

989 Yannis Stavrakakis. Lacan and the Political. London – New York: Routledge, 1999. P. 79.

990 Common Strategy of the European Union of June 4 1999 on Russia (1999/414/CFSP), Official Journal of the European Communities, 24.6.1999.

991 Ian Manners. European (security) Union: From existential threat to ontological security. Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, COPRI Working Papers 5/2002, pp. 25-27.

992 Common Strategy…

993 Andres Vaine, Maxim Blant. Slabaya tara, Ezhenedel’niy zhurnal, April 1, 2003, pp. 38-40.

994 Irina Osokina. Ekologicheskaya stabil’nost Baltiki – nasha strategicheskaya zadacha, Izvestia, November 17, 2003, p.5.

995 See for example, Ian Trenor (2002) ’EU and Russia clash over the Baltic enclave’ The Guardian, 30 May.

996 See Moscow Times 28.8.2002.

997 For a good start, see Heather Grabbe (2000), ’The Sharp Edges of Europe: Extending Schengen Eastwards’. International Affairs 76:3.

998 For a well argued analysis on these themes, see Christopher Browning, ’The Internal/External Security Paradox and the Reconstruction of Boundaries in the Baltic: The Case of Kaliningrad’. Working Papers 21/2002. Copenhagen Peace Research Institute.

999 On this point, see Browning, ibid., p. 25.

1000 Международные и внешнеэкономические связи субъектов Российской Федерации. Учебное пособие. Под редакцией А.Г.Гранберга. Москва: Научная книга, 2001. Стр. 243-244.

1001 Iris Kempe. Direct Neighbourhood: Connections between Regional and European Aspects. VI World Congress for Central & East European Studies. Abstracts. Tampere, 2000. P. 202.

1002 Госудума не будет рассматривать вопрос о ситуации вокруг Калининградской области, http://www.strana.ru/print/147232.html

1003 Элен Деспич-Попович. Расширение Европы упирается в проблему Калининграда (“Liberation”, Франция), http://www.inosmi.ru/print/1022684766.html

1004 Christopher Browning. The Internal/External Security Paradox and the Reconstruction of Boundaries in the Baltic: The Case of Kaliningrad. Copenhagen: COPRI Working Paper, at www.copri.dk

1005 Европа отрезает Калининград от России, http://www.gazeta.ru/print/2002/05/29/evropaotreza.shtml

1006 ЕС разводит Россию в тёмную, http://www.apn.ru/lenta/2002/7/25/19933

1007 http://www.strana.ru/print/150949.html

1008 А.Мехтиев. “Жёсткие условия ЕС – не для диалога с Россией”? http://www.strana.ru/print/137087.html

1009 Е.Белецкий. Будущее Калининграда. Коридор через Польшу и Литву, http://www.csr-nw.ru/publications.php?code=326

1010 П.Черноморский. Ни транзит, ни визы калининградскую проблему не решат, http://www.globalrus.ru/index.html?section=review&id=57235

1011 А.Рябушев, С.Сергиевский. Калининград в блокаде // Независимая газета, 17.05.2002.

1012 О.Минаева. Калининградская область. Янтарный край в европейской оправе // Аргументы и факты, № 24 (1129), 12 июня 2002 г.

1013 Орхан Джемаль. Окно в Европу, или проходной двор // Новая газета, № 33р (802), 3-9 сентября 2002 г. Стр.4.

1014 Е.Белецкий. Будущее Калининграда. Коридор через Польшу и Литву, http://www.csr-nw.ru/publications.php?code=326

1015 http://www.politcom.ur/print.php?fname

1016 Лоран Николе. Газ и проблема Калининграда – тяжкий груз для отношений России и ЕС (Le Temps, Швейцария), http://www.inosmi.ru/print/1022766102.html

1017 http://www.politcom.ur/print.php?fname

1018 Евросоюз должен подрыть Литву и Польшу, http://www.apn.ru/lenta/2002/7/24/19850

1019 В.Никонов: “В Сочи состоится первый серьёзный разговор о Калининграде с лидером одной из главных стран ЕС”, http://www.strana.ru/print/153184.html

1020 Лев Бруни. Калининградские козыри, http://www.vesti.ru/printed/1022753640.html

1021 С.Михайлов, А.Угланов. Калининградская область: транспортный коридор в обмен на атомную станцию // Аргументы и факты, № 25 (1130), 19 июня 2002 г.

1022 А.Кузнецов. Расширение ЕС и Калининградская область // Мировая экономика и международные отношения, № 2, 2001.

1023 http://www.strana.ru/print/153055.html

1024 П.Черноморский. Ни транзит, ни визы калининградскую проблему не решат, http://www.globalrus.ru/index.html?section=review&id=57235

1025 Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: “Западня для Калининграда”, http://www.strana.ru/print/141414.html

1026 Все наши беды от соседей, www.btime.ru, 27.04.2001

1027 http://www.strana.ru/print/149680.html

1028 http://www.utro.ru/news/print/2002062712430885951.shtml

1029 http://www.strana.ru/print/148097.html

1030 А.Чичкин. Калининградские виражи Вильнюса, http://www.gazetasng.ru/print.php/id=34447

1031 А.Чичкин. Калининград окружат колючей европроволокой? http://www.gazetasng.ru/print.php/id=32966

1032 ЕС разводит Россию в тёмную, http://www.apn.ru/lenta/2002/7/25/19933

1033Калининград сравнили с Гонконгом, http://www.utro.ru/news/print/2002042913245675855.shtml

1034 На саммите решают судьбу Калининграда, http://www.dni.ru/print.html?id=10199

1035 http://www.izvestia.ru/print/?id=17535

1036 В.Иванов. Спешка нужна только при ловле блох // Маяк Балтики, № 36 (36), 24 октября 2002 г. Стр.5.

1037 Г.Лосев. Калининградский эксклав: споры о пилотности региона // Российский региональный бюллетень. Москва: Институт “Восток-Запад”, № 24, декабрь 2001 г.

1038 М.Рубченко, Е.Шохина, С.Шошкин. Точки роста, или чёрные дыры // Эксперт, № 28 (335), 22 июля 2002 г.

Патрик Тайлер. В российском анклаве властвует коррупция, http://www.inopressa.ru/details.htm?id=1520

1039 Калининград: как это будет по-прусски? // Комсомольская правда, 10 июля 2002 г.

1040 С.Митрофанов. Способ стать общеевропейцем, http://www.smi.ru/print/?id=469666

1041 Н.Стеклов. Капля в море // Российская газета, 25.07.2001

1042 Ю.Солодухин. Калининградская область в свете новых геополитических реалий, http://www.csr-nw.ru/publications.php?code=157

1043 Pirjo Jukarainen. Norden is Dead – Long Live the Eastwards Faced Euro-North // Cooperation and Conflict, vol. 34, N 4, December 1999. P. 358.

1044 New Nordic Agenda – follow-up to the report from the panel of Wise Men. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 2001. P. 20.

1045 Ola Tunander. Norway, Sweden and Nordic Cooperation, in Security in the European North. From “Hard” to “Soft”. Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre at University of Lapland, and Olof Palme International Center, 1999. P.48.

1046 Pertti Joenniemi. The European Union’s Northern Dimension: on the Introduction of a New Signifier. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Congress, Los Angeles, March 14-18, 2000. Pp. 5-8.

1047 Pertti Joenniemi. The Northern Dimension: Allegiance or Revolt? In Security in the European North. From “Hard” to “Soft”. Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre at University of Lapland, and Olof Palme International Center, 1999. P. 75.

1048 Pertti Joenniemi. The Europeanisation of Northerness… P.2.

1049 Pertti Joenniemi. The Northern Dimension: Allegiance or Revolt? In Security in the European North. From “Hard” to “Soft”. Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre at University of Lapland, and Olof Palme International Center, 1999. P. 77.

1050 Mikko Majander. Op.cit.

1051 Klaus Schultze. Natsional’naia identichnost’ stran Baltii v kontexte ikh vstuplenia v ES (National Identities of the Baltic Countries in the Context of Their Accession to EU) // Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie v perekhodnikh ekonomikakh. Open Society Institute: LGI Program. Budapest, January 2002, p.17.

1052 Tom Schumacher. The Emergence of the New Nordic Co-operation. Helsinki: DUPI Working Paper 2000/6. P.10.

1053 Hiski Haukkala. Two Reluctant Regionalizers? The European Union and Russia in Europe’s North. Working Paper 32 (2001). The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Programme on the Northern Dimension of the CFSP. P. 20.

1054 The Northern Dimension, a Subregional Contribution. Report by the BSSSC ad-hoc Working Group on Northern Dimension, October 1999, at http://www.bsssc.com/pages/documents/documents_nor.htm

1055 Christopher S.Browning. The Region-Building Approach Revisited: the Continuing Othering of Russia in Discourses of Region-Building in the European North, at http://www.copri.dk

1056 Pami Aalto. Structural Geopolitics in Europe. Constructing Geopolitical Subjectivity for the EU and Russia. COPRI Working Paper 22/2001. Pp. 15,20.

1057 Hans Mouritzen. Security Communities in the Baltic Sea Region: Real and Imagined // Security Dialogue, Volume 32, Number 3, September 2001. P. 304.

1058 Sergei Medvedev. Glenn Gould, Finland, Russia and the North // International Politics. Vol. 38, N 1, March 2001. P. 92.

1059 Ole Waever. Culture and Identity in the Baltic Sea Region. Centre for Peace and Conflict Research, Copenhagen. Working paper 18/1990. P.17.

1060 Jerel A.Rosati. The Power of Human Cognition in the Study of World Politics // International Studies Review. Vol. 2-3, issue 3, fall 2000. P. 53.

1061 Pertti Joenniemi. The Europeanisation of Northerness. On the Changing Co-ordinates of Political Space. Paper presented at the 2nd Russian Congress on Political Regionality. Nizhny Novgorod, September 17-19, 1999. P.5.

1062 Branislav Gosovic. Global Intellectual Hegemony and the International Development Agenda // International Social Science Journal, N 166, December 2000.

1063 Mikko Majander. The Paradoxes of Finlandization, in Northern Dimensions. Yearbook. The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 1999. P. 91.

1064 Uffe Ostergard. The Nordic Countries in the Baltic Region, in Neo-nationalism or Regionality. The Restructuring of Political Space Around the Baltic Rim. Edited by Pertti Joenniemi. Aaland Islands’ Peace Research Institute and COPRI, 1998. P. 49.

1065 Christopher S.Browning. The Region-Building Approach Revisited: the Continuing Othering of Russia in Discourses of Region-Building in the European North, at http://www.copri.dk

1066 Pertti Joenniemi. Beyond Sovereignty: Russia’s Regionalization and Co-operation in Europe’s North. Paper presented at the Conference in the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research, ETH Zurich, July 2001. P. 21.

1067 Viacheslav Morozov. The Baltic States in Russian Foreign Policy Discourse: Can Russia Become a Baltic Country? at http://www.copri.dk

1068 Jochen Prantl. Security and Stability in Northern Europe – a Threat Assessment. Programme on the Northern Dimension of the CFSP, April 2000.

1069 Yurii Arutiunov. Severnoe izmerenie (Northern Dimension), in Russia and Central Europe in the New Geopolitical Realities. Proceedings of the III International Scientific Conference. Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, and Institute of International Economic and Political Studies, 2000. P. 259.

1070 Ingmar Oldberg. Kaliningrad: Russian exclave, European enclave. FOI Scientific Report, FOI-R-0134-SE, June 2001. P. 69.

1071 Alexander Sergounin. Russia and the European Union: the Case of Kaliningrad. Program on New Approaches to Russian Security Policy Memo Series. Edited by Erin Powers. Memo N 172. PONARS, 2000. P.1.

1072 Alexander Sergounin. Op.cit. P.5.

1073 Tuomas Forsberg. Soft means to hard security: Finland and the Northern Dimension of the European Union, in Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Edited by Pertti Joenniemi and Jevgenia Viktorova. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. P.95.

1074 Press release of the government of the Russian Federation, March 6, 2002, at http://www.ln.mid.ru

1075 http://www.strana.ru/print/118628.html

1076 Jevgenia Viktorova. Borders, regions, and security: on an intersection, in Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. P. 23.

1077 http://www.strana.ru/print/987507689.html

1078 Pertti Joenniemi. The European Union’s Northern Dimension: on the Introduction of a New Signifier. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Congress, Los Angeles, March 14-18, 2000. P.2.

1079 Izvestia, August 31, 2000. P.6.

1080 http://www.academy-go.ru/Site/RussiaEC/Kaliningrad/Chichkin.html

1081 Charles Silva. Russia and the EU. How Can the Process of Rapprochement be Furthered? Report from the EU-Russia Forum for Foreign & Security Policy, Moscow, 15 February 2001.

1082 http://regions.ng.ru/printed/far/2001-05-29/6_lock.html

1083 “Itogi”, May 22, 2001. P. 21.

1084 Graeme P.Herd. Russian systemic transformation and its impact on Russo-Baltic relations, in: Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. P. 127.

1085 Ingmar Oldberg. Kaliningrad between Moscow and Brussels. Paper presented at the Conference on Russia’s Regions in the New International Security Environment. Center for Security and Conflict Research, ETH Zurich, 6-7 July 2001. P. 22.

1086 http://www.dvr.ru/docs/art2202.htm

1087 Sergei Jakobson-Obolenski. Change of Attitude Towards Kaliningrad? // Ballad Reports, at http://www.ballad.org

1088 Christopher S.Browning. The Region-Building Approach Revisited: the Continuing Othering of Russia in Discourses of Region-Building in the European North, at http://www.copri.dk

1089 Viacheslav Morozov. The Baltic States in Russian Foreign Policy Discourse: Can Russia Become a Baltic Country? at http://www.copri.dk

1090 Mathias Albert. From Territorial to Functional Space: Germany and the Baltic Sea Area, at http://www.copri.dk

1091 Arkady Moshes, Bertil Nygren. Russia Looks at the Baltic Sea Region. Forsvarshogskolan, Strategiska Institutionen, SI Serie R:2, 2000. P. 28.

1092 Jakob Hedenskog. Windows onto Europe or Russian Dead Ends? The Federal Centre and the Foreign Relations of Russia’s Western Regions // NEBI Yearbook, 2001/2002. P. 302.

1093 “Itogi”, May 22, 2001. P. 26.

1094 http://www.strana.ru/print/119264.html

1095 Kommersant, N 176, September 27, 2001. P.2.

1096 Russian Regional Report (Russian version), vol. 3, N 13, July 2, 2001. P. 19.

1097 Press release of the State Duma, May 25, 2001, at http://www.ln.mid.ru

1098 http://www.politcom.ru/neft_prog3.php

1099 MFA Information Bulletin, March 11, 2001, at http://www.ln.mid.ru

1100 http://www.strana.ru/print/118502.html

1101 Zverev, Igor. Kaliningradskaia oblast: portret na fone vyborov (KO: portrait against electoral background), http://carnegie.pubs.ru

1102 Sylvia Asklof. Forum in Kalmar Discusses the Future of Kaliningrad // Ballad Reports, at http://www.ballad.org

1103 http://www.strana.ru/print/118215.html

1104 http://www.politcom.ru/aaa_zloba482.php

1105 Sergei Oznobishev. Kak svarit’ Baltiiskii sup (How to cook the ’”Baltic soup”), at http://www.nasledie.ru/oboz/N11_01/11_06.HTM

1106 Elfie Siegl. A Loner Called Kaliningrad // Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 1, 2002, N 51. P.3.

1107 Losev, Gleb. Kaliningradskii exklav: spory o pilotnosti regiona (Kaliningrad exclave: debates on the pilot status region), in Russian Regional Report, Moscow: East-West Institute, N 24, December 2001.

1108 http://www.strana.ru/printed/897331720.html

1109 Vladimir Abramov. Kaliningradskaya oblast // Konstitutsionnoe pravo: vostochnoevropeiskoe obozrenie, N 3 (36), 2001. Pp. 191-192.

1110 Jakob Hedenskog. The Foreign Relations of Russia’s Western Regions. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities, New York City, 13-15 April 2000. P.15.

1111 http://www.strana.ru/print/984407253.html

1112 Lyndelle D.Fairlie. Will Kaliningrad become a case study in ‘regionalities’, in: Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. Pp. 197-199.

1113 Minsk indignant at Adamkus’ criticism // The Baltic Times, January 31 – February 6, 2002. P.3.

1114 News from the USIA. Washington File in Russian. 27 January 2000, at http://www.usia.gov

1115 The United States’s Northern Dimension? Prospects for a U.S.-Russian Cooperative Agenda in Northern Europe. PONARS Policy Memo No.232. Washington, D.C., January 25, 2002. P.2.

1116 Stuart J.Kaufman. NATO, Russia, and the Baltic States. PONARS Policy Memo No.216. Washington, D.C., January 25, 2002. P.1.

1117 Lyndon L.Johnson, Jr. The U.S. Stake in Northern Europe, in Security in the European North. From “Hard” to “Soft”. Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre at University of Lapland, and Olof Palme International Center, 1999. P. 59.

1118 Mark Kramer. Kaliningrad oblast, Russia, and Baltic Security. Program on New Approaches to Russian Security, Policy Memo Series. Memo N 10, October 1997. PONARS, 1997. P. 1.

1119 Stephen Blank. Russia and the Baltic in the Age of NATO Enlargement // Parameters, Autumn 1998. Pp. 50-68.

1120 News from the USIA… P.4.

1121 John X.Loughran. Kaliningrad: Forgotten Corner if Russia. National Security Report, May 2000, at http://www.roa.org/nsr/0500nsr3.html

1122 http://www.academy-go.ru/Site/RussiaEC/Kaliningrad/Bespor.html

1123 Typical is the title “Bacteria launch offensive”, at http://regions.ng.ru/printed/far/2001-03-13/2_bacteria.html

1124 http://gov.kaliningrad.ru/news.php3?uid=1704200101

1125 The EU and Kaliningrad. Communication from the Commission to the Council. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 17.01.2001, COM(2001)26 final.

1126 Alexander Sergounin. Russia and transborder security challenges in Northern Europe: defining a co-operative agenda, in: Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. Pp. 139, 162.

1127 Bartosz Cichocki, Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz, Andrzej Wilk. The Kaliningrad Oblast in the Context of EU Enlargement // CES Studies. Warsaw: Center for Eastern European Studies, July 2001. P. 54.

1128 See Olga Kuznetsova’s paper in: Russian Regional Report, N 7, 2001. Moscow: East-West Institute.

1129 Jacob Hedenskog, Ingmar Oldberg. Russia’s Western Border Regions: Gateway to Europe? Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, Saporro, 2001. P. 78.

1130 Vladimir Abramov. Kaliningradskaya oblast, yanvar’-mart 2001 // Konstitutsionnoe pravo: vostochnoevropeiskoe obozrenie, N 2 (35), 2001. P. 172.

1131 http://www.ng.ru/printed/economics/2002-03-07/3_gref.html

1132 http://www.strana.ru/print/118954.html

1133 http://www.strana.ru/print/118491.html

1134 http://www.strana.ru/print/897332079.html

1135 http://www.vremyamn.ru/cgi-bin/2000/889/3/2.html

1136 Kairi Kurm, Sixty years to catch up with Western Europe // The Baltic Times, February 7-13, 2002. P. 14.

1137 Ilmira Yafasova. Problemy razvitia Kaliningradskoi oblasti (The problems of KO development) // Russian Regional Report. Moscow: East-West Institute, N 14-15, 2001.

1138 Web site of the Delegation of the European Commission in Russia, at http://www.eur.ru/neweur/user.php?func=main

1139 Federal’naya Tselevaia Programma Razvitia Kaliningradskoi oblasti na period do 2010 goda (Federal Targeted Program of Kaliningrad Oblast Development till 2010), December 7, 2001, N 866.

1140 http://www.rosbalt.ru/daily/38316.html

1141 http://www.strana.ru/print/118188.html

1142 http://www.academy-go.ru/Site/RussiaEC/Kaliningrad/Prussduh.html

1143 “Regiony Rossii”. Information and analytical bulletin. N 23 (3), January 29, 2001. P. 27.

1144 Ingmar Oldberg and Jakob Hedenskog. In Dire Straits: Russia’s Western Regions between Moscow and the West. FOA-R-01617-170-SE, October 2000. Stockholm: Defence Research Establishment. Pp. 34, 66.

1145 Hans Mouritzen. Security Communities in the Baltic Sea Region: Real and Imagined // Security Dialogue, Volume 32, Number 3, September 2001. P. 306.

1146 Ojars Kalnins. NATO: Balts in or out? // The Baltic Times, February 14-20, 2002. P.19.

1147 Geoffrey Vasiliauskas. Four seconds and 28 days // The Baltic Times, January 31 – February 6, 2002. P.19.

1148 Rein Ruutsoo. Estonian Integration Perspective into Europe After Amsterdam and Madrid Summits, at http://gaia.gi.ee/~tarmo/madamst.htm

1149 Ramunas Janusauskas. The ‘Kaliningrad puzzle’ in Lithuanian and Russian political discourse, in: Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. P. 229.

1150 http://www.nns.ru/interv/arch/2002/03/05/int7226.html

1151 The Baltic Times, February 21-27, 2002. P.3.

1152 Raimundas Lopata. Litva i Kaliningrad: rasshirenie partniorstva dlia novoi Evropy (Lithuania and Kaliningrad: expanding partnership for new Europe). Paper presented at the seminar on Russian-Baltic relations, Russian Association of International Studies, 2000, at http://www.rami.ru.

1153 Algirdas Saudargas. Lithuania and Euro-Atlantic Integration, in The Baltic Quest for Security: Euro-Atlantic Integration. Heritage Lectures N 641, July 28, 1999. P. 10.

1154 Parliamentarians propose Lithuanian-Kaliningrad forum // Ballad. Kaliningrad in focus, 24/04/01

1155 http://www.strana.ru/print/117975.html

1156 Russian Regional Report (Russian version), vol. 3, N 13, July 2, 2001. P.20.

1157 Bartosz Cichocki, Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz, Andrzej Wilk. The Kaliningrad Oblast in the Context of EU Enlargement // CES Studies. Warsaw: Center for Eastern European Studies, July 2001. P. 57.

1158 http://www.ln.mid.ru

1159 http://www.strana.ru/print/105121.html

1160 http://www.strana.ru/print/983792455.html

1161 http://www.enet.ru/baltia/~b1010820.html

1162 Baltic Sea Cooperation Beyond 2000. Visions and Strategies on the Local and Regional Level. April 2000, at http://www.bsssc.com/pages/documents/documents_bal.htm

1163 Artur Benz, Dietrich Furst. Policy Learning in Regional Networks // European Urban and Regional Studies. Vol. 9, N 1, January 2002. P. 25.

1164 Alexander Sergounin. Op.cit. P. 2.

1165 Ingmar Oldberg. The Emergence of a Regional Identity in the Kaliningrad oblast // Cooperation and Conflict. Vol. 35, N 3, September 2000. P. 283.

1166 Arkady Moshes, Bertil Nygren. Russia Looks at the Baltic Sea Region. Forsvarshogskolan, Stra\tegiska Institutionen, SI Serie R:2, 2000. P.8.

1167 http://regions.ng.ru/printed/elections/2000-11-28/3_anklav.html

1168 Yurii Sinel’nik. Op.cit.

1169 Vladimir Abramov. Kaliningradskaya oblast // Konstitutsionnoe pravo: vostochnoevropeiskoe obozrenie, N 2 (31), 2000. Pp. 85-86.

1170 Vladimir Abramov. Kaliningradskaya oblast // Konstitutsionnoe pravo: vostochnoevropeiskoe obozrenie, N 3 (32), 2001. P. 104.

1171 Sergei Jakobson-Obolenski. Kaliningrad – the responsibility of centralised Russia // Ballad Reports, at http://www.ballad.org

1172 http://www.strana.ru/printed/989502244.html

1173 http://www.strana.ru/print/981112709.html

1174 http://gov.kaliningrad.ru/news.php3uid=0904200101

1175 http://gov.kaliningrad.ru/interviews.php3?uid=8

1176 http://gov.kaliningrad.ru/interviews.php3?uid=7

1177 http://gov.kaliningrad.ru/interviews.php3?uid=1

1178 http://gov.kaliningrad.ru/interviews.php3?uid=2

1179 http://www.utro.ru/articles/print/2001042602045611331.shtml

1180 Itogi, May 22, 2001. P. 25

1181 Vladimir Egorov visits Poland to discuss regional issues // Ballad. In focus Kaliningrad, 18/04/01, at http://www.ballad.org

1182 http://expert.ru/sever/current/econ.shtml

1183 Losev, Gleb. Kaliningradskii exklav: spory o pilotnosti regiona (Kaliningrad exclave: debates on the pilot status of the region) // Russian Regional Report, Moscow: East-West Institute, N 24, December 2001.

1184 http://www.strana.ru/print/78068.html

1185 Anisimov, Alexander; Karmanov, Evgenii. Kaliningradskii exklav: smena sotsial’no-politicheskikh orientatsii kak proryvnaya strategia (Kaliningrad exclave: change of socio-political orientations as the strategy for breakthrough), in Russian Regional Report. Moscow: East-West Institute, N 1, January 2002.

1186 http://www.iet.ru/papers/38/05.htm

1187 Mikhailova, Svetlana. Schiotnaia palata konstatirovala chto sozdat’ SEZ v Kaliningradre ne udalos’ (Accounting Chamber has stated the failure of Free Economic Zone in Kaliningrad) // Russian Regional Report. Moscow: East-West Institute, N 19, 2001.

1188 http://okrug.metod.ru/books/ppp/Arhiv/1year/Cher19.04.2001/getindex

1189 http://www.utro.ru/articles/print/2001072617443026842.shtml

1190 http://regions.ng.ru/printed/authority/2001-06-19/2_savenko.html

1191 Sylvia Asklof. Association for Benefit of Kaliningrad Girls Founded // Ballad Report, at http://www.ballad.org

1192 Elena Emelianova. 34 Countries involved in Kaliningrad // Ballad Report, at http://www.ballad.org

1193 Sylvia Asklof. Slavsk – Highest Density of Computers in Kaliningrad // Ballad Report, at http://www.ballad.org

1194 Sylvia Asklof. NGO for Freedom of Speech // Ballad Report, at http://www.ballad.org

1195 Elena Emelianova. Civil Society – Potential, Actors and Goals // Ballad Report, at http://www.ballad.org

1196 Sylvia Asklof. Kaliningrad Authorities Fail to Take Action Against Oil Pollution // Ballad Reports, at http://www.ballad.org

1197 Elena Emelianova. NGOs Met in Kaliningrad for the First Time // Ballad Report, at http://www.ballad.org

1198 http://www.strana.ru/print/983534045.html

1199 “Regiony Rossii”. Information and analytical bulletin. N 13 (33), April 9, 2001. P. 36.

1200 Vladimir Slapentokh. Putin’s first year in office: the new regime’s uniqueness in Russian history // Communist and Post-Communist Studies, n 34 (2201). P. 395.

1201 “Itogi”, May 22, 2001. P. 27.

1202 “Delovaya zhizn”. A publication of Baltic Republican Party and the Kaliningrad Union of Entrepreneurs, at http://www.enet.ru/~baltia.progr.html

1203 Ginzburg, Solomon. Kaliningradskii separatism mozhet byt’ vzrashion tol’ko Moskvoi (Kaliningrad separatism might be nurtured only by Moscow), in Russian Regional Report. Moscow: East-West Institute, N 21, 2001.

1204 Smirnova, Irina. Legendy i mify Kaliningradskoi oblast (Legends and myths of KO) // Nezavisimaya gazeta, January 28, 2002.

1205 Fritz W.Scharpf. Institutions in Comparative Policy Research // Comparative Political Studies. Vol. 33, N 6-7, August – September 2000. P. 776.

1206 Richard Snyder, James Mahoney. The Missing Variable. Institutions and the Study of Regime Change // Comparative Politics. Vol. 32, N 1, October 1999. P. 103.

1207 Viacheslav Morozov. The Baltic States in Russian Foreign Policy Discourse: Can Russia Become a Baltic Country? at http://www.copri.dk

1208 Sylvia Asklof. Kaliningrad – a Puzzle between Russia and Europe // Ballad Reports, at http://www.ballad.org

1209 Walter Mattli. The Politics and Economics of International Institutional Standard Setting: an Introduction // Journal of European Public Policy. Vol. 8, N 3, 2001. P. 328.

1210 Soft Security Problems in Northwest Russia and Their Implications for the Outside World. A Framework for Analysis and Action. Edited by Christer Pursiainen. UPI Working Paper 31(2001). Programme on the Northern Dimension, the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. P. 33.

1211 Spatial Planning for Sustainable Development in the Baltic Sea Region. A VASAB 2010 Contribution to Baltic 21, at http://www.ee/baltic21/publicat/R9.htm

1212 http://www.csr-nw.ru/strategy.php

1213 http:/www.csr-nw.ru/text.php?item=publications&code=318

1214 Resolution. The 9th Conference on Baltic Sea States Subregional Cooperation. Riga, 25-27th October 2001, at http://www.bsssc.com/pages/documents/documents_con.htm

1215 Nicola Catellani. Short and Long-Term Dynamics in the EU’s Northern Dimension, at www.copri.dk

1216 Communication from the Commission. A Northern Dimension for the Policies of the Union. Brussels, 25/11/98. COM/98/0589 Final.

1217 Sandra Lavenex. Migration and the EU’s New Eastern Border: Between Realism and Liberalism // Journal of European Public Policy. Vol. 8, N 1, 2001. P. 38.

1218 Bjorn T.Asheim. Learning regions as development coalitions // Concepts and Transformation. Vol. 6, N 1, 2001.

1219 Noel Parker. Integrated Europe and Its ‘Margins’: Action and Reactions. In: Margins in European Integration. Edited by Noel Parker and Bill Armstrong. Macmillan Press and St.Martin’s Press, 2000. Pp. 3-8.

1220 Christopher Browning, Pertti Joenniemi. Contending Discourses of Marginality: the Case of Kaliningrad. Copenhagen: Institute for International Relations and Human Rights, 2003.

1221 Zdislaw Mach. Heritage, Dream, and Anxiety: the European Identity of Poles. In: European Enlargement and Identity. Cracow: Universitas, 1997. Pp. 41.

1222 Slawomir Majman. Borderlands // Voice – Viewpoint, April 20, 2003. P. 26; Wyjsc poza utopie // Tygodnik Powszechny, N 18, 4 maja 2003. P.18.

1223 Gazeta Wyborcza, 10 czerwca 2003. P.1.

1224 Д.Горностаев. Польша готова вернуть Европу во времена постоянного страна // Польша.ру. 17.05.01

1225 Blizej Polski // Rzeczpospolita, N 102 (6482), 2-4 maja 2003.

1226 Ариста Циртаутас. Польша // Конституционное право: восточноевропейское обозрение. № 4 (33), 2000 - № 1 (34), 2001. Стр.48.

1227 Adam Michnik. Jak byc w Iraku // Gazeta wyborcza, 6 maja 2003. P.1.

1228 Klaus Bachman. Miedzy ironia a zachwytem // Rzeczpospolita, 6 maja 2003. P.A10.

1229 Dmitry Polyviannyi. Considering the EU Enlargement to the East and Its Consequences for Russia: Are the Generalizations Really Productive? In: Russia – the European Union: Interaction Without Strategy?”. Edited by Andreas Goldthau and Pavel Onokhine. Ekaterinburg, 2003. P.73.

1230 Rzeczowy przeglad prasy // Rzeczpospolita, N 104 (6484), 6 maja 2003. P.2.

1231 Ibid.

1232 Olaf Osica. Przerwa na obiad. Po Wawelu, Petersburgu, Evian i Akabie // Tygodnik powczechny, N 24, 15 czerwca 2003. P.3.

1233 Ilya Prizel. National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Cambridge University Press, 1998. P.120.

1234 Piotr Jendroszczyk. Europa wedlug Rumsfelda // Rzeczpospolita, N 136 (6516), 12 czerwca 2003. P.A6.

1235 Jacek Zakowski. Nasz ciezki kawalek Iraku // Polityka, N 20 (2401), 17 maja 2003. P.30.

1236 Angelika Schwall-Durren. Czy Polska wie, co robi? // Rzeczpospolita, N 104 (6484), 6 maja 2003. P.A4.

1237 Pawel Wronski. Polska chce s Niemcamy // Gazeta wyborcza, 6 maja 2003. P.1.

1238 Do wyboru strefa i partnerzy // Rzeczpospolita, N 104 (6484), 6 maja 2003. P.A4.

1239 Krystyna Grzybowska. Aragancja jako wyraz bezsilnosci // Rzeczpospolita, 6 maja 2003. P.A10.

1240 Pawel Wronski. Niemeckie frustracje // Gazeta wyborcza, 6 maja 2003. P.2.

1241 Rewolucja sila przeprowadzana // Tygodnik powszechny, N 18, 4 maja 2003. Pp. 1,7.

1242 Anna Pawlowska. Plan B Leszka Millera // Acta Europea, numer 6, maj-czerwiec 2003. P.17.

1243 Wojciech Kostecki. Poland’s Security Policies in the Baltic Sea Area. In: The NEBI Yearbook 1998. North European and Baltic Sea Integration. Edited by Lars Hedegaard and Bjarne Lindstrom. Springer, 1999. P. 498.

1244 Е.Белецкий. Будущее Калининграда. Коридор через Польшу и Литву, http://www.csr-nw.ru/publications.php?code=326

1245 http://www.politcom.ur/print.php?fname

1246 Bartosz Cichocki, Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz, Andrzej Wilk. The Kaliningrad Oblast in the Context of EU Enlargement // CES Studies, N 2, July 2001. Warsaw: Center for Eastern Studies. Pp. 53-62.

1247 В.Никонов: “В Сочи состоится первый серьёзный разговор о Калининграде с лидером одной из главных стран ЕС”, http://www.strana.ru/print/153184.html

1248 Лев Бруни. Калининградские козыри, http://www.vesti.ru/printed/1022753640.html

1249 С.Михайлов, А.Угланов. Калининградская область: транспортный коридор в обмен на атомную станцию // Аргументы и факты, № 25 (1130), 19 июня 2002 г.

1250 Tomasz Paszewski. Poland Stands Ready to Forge a New Relationship with Kaliningrad. In: Kaliningrad: Growth Centre or Dead End? Baltic Development Forum & Monday Morning. Vol.2, June 2002. P.31.

1251 А.Кузнецов. Расширение ЕС и Калининградская область // Мировая экономика и международные отношения, № 2, 2001.

1252 Все наши беды от соседей, www.btime.ru, 27.04.2001

1253 Калининград: евромост или евротупик? Доклад. Москва: Комитет «Россия в объединённой Европе», 2002. Стр.40.

1254 А.Чичкин. Калининград окружат колючей европроволокой? http://www.gazetasng.ru/print.php/id=32966

1255 ЕС разводит Россию в тёмную, http://www.apn.ru/lenta/2002/7/25/19933

1256 http://www.strana.ru/print/149680.html

1257 Фёдор Лукьянов. Там, где кончается история // Политбюро, 14 апреля 2003 г. Стр.23.

1258 Пертти Юенниеми. Два измерения Европейского Союза: северное и восточное // Европа. Журнал польского института международных дел. Том 3, № 1 (6), 2003. Стр.153-154.

1259 Польша.ру, 04.03.03

1260 Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz, Alexander Duleba, Laszlo Poti, Vladimir Votapek. Eastern Policy of the EU: the Visegrad Countries’ Perspective. Warszawa: Centre for Eastern Studies, February 2003, at http://www.osw.waw.pl/pub/punkt/0301/PUNKT_WIDZENIA.pdf

1261 А.Гриценко, Л.Поляков. Украина – НАТО: будущее в руках у прошлого // Зеркало недели, № 26 – 27 (451-452), 12 июля 2003 г. Стр.5.

1262 Корреспондент, 8 июля 2003 г. Стр.11.

1263 Anatoly Halchynsky. Central European Renovation // The Day, N 22, 2003. P.4.

1264 ГУУАМ: второе дыхание или на ладан дышание? // 2000 Форум, 11 июля 2003 г. Стр.А2.

1265 П.Святенков. Расширение Европы и его последствия // Консерватор, № 15 (31), 25 апреля – 1 мая 2003 г. Стр.3.

1266 Георгий Кунадзе. Заметки идеалиста // Новое время, № 23, 2003. Стр.30.

1267 Vasiliy Valuev. EU Enlargement and Kaliningrad: Bringing or Bridging Possible New Divisions. In: Russia – The European Union: Interaction Without Strategy? Edited by Andreas Goldthau and Pavel Onokhine. Ekaterinburg: 2003. P.78; Vasiliy Valuev. Russian Border Policies and Border Regions. Copenhagen: COPRI Working Papers 36/2002.

1268 Профиль, № 3 (273), 21 января 2002 г.

1269 Польша.ру, 26.12.2002

1270 Надежда Хворостухина. Балтика экспортирует стабильность // Балтийская газета, № 26 (94), 2003 г.

1271 Foucault 1972.

1272 Joenniemi 2004, p.4.

1273 Neumann 1998, p.223.

1274 V uzlakh … 2001.

1275 Pereslegin 2004.

1276 Pavlovskii 2004.

1277 Kazin 2002.

1278 Iliyn 2003.

1279 Zamiatin 2004.

1280 RosBiznesKonsalting Agency, March 25, 2003, www.rbc.ru

1281 Schlogel 2003.

1282 Wallace 2003, p.8.

1283 Karabeshkin and Wellmann 2004, p.7.

1284 Wennersten 1999, pp. 273-281.

1285 Zamiatin 2001, p. 127.

1286 Medvedev 1998, pp. 44-61.

1287 Communication from the … 2004.

1288 Zamiatin 2000.

1289 Morozov 2004, p.10.

1290 Ibid.

1291 Morozov 2003.

1292 Rossiya kak Novaya Evropa…

1293 Karaganov 2004a.

1294 Cronberg 2003.

1295 Right 2003.

1296 Huisman 2002, p. 20.

1297 Haukkala 2002.

1298 Joenniemi 2004.

1299 Kononczuk 2003.

1300 Boratynski and Gromadzki, 2001.

1301 Iglicka 2003.

1302 Gromadzki and Osica 2002.

1303 Wider Europe / Eastern and Southern Neighbours … 2003.

1304 Hyndle and Kutysz 2002, p. 48.

1305 Vol’nov, Andrey (2004), Panskie ambitsii, Rossiiskie vesti, April 28 – May 11, http://www.rosvesty.ru/numbers/1724/europe/article_43.phtml

1306 Bukharin 2001.

1307 Bukharin 2004.

1308 Kennedy 2003.

1309 Dale 2004, p.7.

1310 Stalvant 2001, p.18.

1311 Waever 1992, p.18.

1312 Diez 2004.

1313 Joennimi 1995, pp.351, 354, 358, 361.

1314 Scott 2002, p.142.

1315 Kakonen 1998, p.61.

1316 Hettne 2000, p.XVII.

1317 Joenniemi and Waever 1993, p.7.

1318 Kivikari 1996, p.144.

1319 Balogh 2004, p.8.

1320 Sztompka 2004, p.3.

1321 The Washington Times, April 28, 2004.

1322 Luchterhandt 2003.

1323 Jervell 1992, p.11, 13.

1324 Antola 2003, p.6.

1325 Miniotaite 2004.

1326 Joenniemi 2004.

1327 Fuller 2003.

1328 Kazin 2004, p.96.

1329 Shastik 2003.

1330 Fedotova 1997, pp.152-153.

1331 Bychkov and Kruipnov, 2002.

1332 “Pravda” Information Agency, June 7, 2003, http://politics.pravda.ru/printed.html?news_id=11156

1333 Agency for Humanitarian Technologies web site, http://www.gtnews.ru/cgi/news/view.cgi?goto=20551

1334 Zagorskii 2003, p.21.

1335 Nikolaev 2000.

1336 Militarev and Denisov 2004.

1337 Khramchikhin 2004.

1338 Usachov 1993.

1339 Privalov and Sychova 2004.

1340 Tsvetkova, Maria (2002), Evropa stala bol’she i bednee, Gazeta, April 27, http://www.gazeta.ru/print/2002/12/14/evropastalab.shtml

1341 Riekstins 2004, p.18.

1342 Echo Moskvy Radio web site, April 28, 2004, http://www.echo.msk.ru/interview/1.html

1343 Kto ubil Bol’shuyu Evropu (Who Killed the Big Europe). Publication of the Trans-continental Laboratory, “Europe from Kitezh to Alaska” Project, http://europe.inache.net/bigeuro.html

1344 Fiodorov 2004, p.8.

1345 Center for Political Conjuncture web site, June 28, 2004, http://www.ancentr.ru/portal/printout2056.html

1346 http://www.strana.ru/print/147360.html

1347 Interview with Erhard Kromme, Izvestia, October 30, 2003, p.4.

1348 Mayak Baltiki, February 13, 2003. P.2.

1349 Ivanov, Viacheslav; Skripov, Vladimir; Stepura, Elena (2004), Pervye bliny s evropeiskoi skovorodki, Expert Severo-Zapad, N 23 (180), June 21.

1350 Belkovskii 2003.

1351 Zagorskii 2004, p.69.

1352 Belkovskii 2004.

1353 Dugin 2003.

1354 Parvulesco 2003.

1355 Chekaliova-Demidovskaya 2003, p.27.

1356 Krylov 2002.

1357 Nifontov 2002.

1358 Remizov 2001b.

1359 Karaganov 2004b.

1360 Remizov 2001a.

1361 Tsymburskii 2002.

1362 Danilov 2000.

1363 Kazin 2003.

1364 Cichocki, Cichocki and Kowal 2002.

1365 Kazin 2003.

1366 Kazin 2003.

1367 Newman 2003.

1368 Kuus 2004.

1369 Tavares 2004, p.28.

1370 This paper is part of a book manuscript European Union and the Making of a Wider Northern Europe (to be completed by early 2004) and is supported by the Academy of Finland projects ‘Identity Politics, Security and the Making of Geopolitical Order in the Baltic Region’ (SA 50882, 2001-2003) and ‘Russia, the Russians and Europe’ (SA decision no. 103049, 2003-2005).

1371 All interviews conducted by the author in the Russian language in November 2002.

1372 These two notions are explained and justified in more detail in the book manuscript referred to in note 1 (ch. 1, 3). Here they are introduced merely to give frame to the empirical analysis of Russian views.

1373 In July 2002 the EU Commission announced that depending on Russia’s plans for Kaliningrad’s future, the Union was ready to allocate another 25 million euros for developing small and medium-sized businesses in Kaliningrad. It was initially hinted that the amount could be paid into a special fund, an arrangement preferred by the Kaliningrad regional administration and some independent experts (e.g. Dewar 2001; ‘Kaliningrad Parliament…’). However, in 2003 it was announced that the fund would be channelled through TACIS, meaning that about 80% of it would go to western/European consultants, not into investment (‘EU to spend…’; ‘Kaliningrad Parliament…’; ‘EU-Russia partnership…’).

1374 This was declared by the Governor of the oblast’, Vladimir Egorov in September 2003. In addition to the FTD based train service, Kaliningraders can take a ferry to St. Petersburg without having to show a passport or sort out a visa. The ferry leaves every other day from the town of Baltiisk. The Russian airline company Aeroflot and the Kaliningrad regional administration have also signed a two-year agreement on a flight connection. The cost of a return flight is less than USD 30 and there are four flights a day (‘Governor…’).

1375 The EU-Russian military co-operation offers potentially a very large-scale project, as Russia could provide crucial help for the Union in its efforts to develop independent capabilities. A Russian officer is attached to the EU’s new military staff and political consultations are underway. The EU has also offered Russia an opportunity to participate in its crisis management operations.

1376 In addition, Pursiainen notes the possibility of ‘opening the black box’, i.e. enquiring into the diversity of views within regions. This is not the explicit aim here, but some contrasts are built among the Kaliningraders.

1377 In 1979, Oleg Pavlovskii tried to discover the reason behind the name changes. He confesses that his search was almost fruitless, the exception being a paper entitled ‘Decree of the Military Council of the Special Military District’ from 23 November 1945 (Pavlovskii 1996, 35-7). He states that it was signed by the commanding officer of the military district General-Colonel Galitskii, and a comment had been pencilled in that stated “many streets, squares and parks of Königsberg are named after fascist bandits”. The Military Council then issued a decree that all street names would be changed by 15 December 1945 into Russian and German, with the renaming of the streets also taking place at this time. Therefore, thousands of streets had to be renamed within 22 days, to ensure the “minimum level of disturbance for the Soviet population”. Pavlovskii then goes on to state that he was fortunate enough to interview Anatolii Mikhailovich, a man who served with Galitskii’s administration. Mikhailovich explained that the streets were renamed in a random fashion. For example, Brahms Street did not change because Brahms’ name had no association with Fascists. However, after the city became administered by civilian control, street names such as ‘3rd worker street’, or ‘2nd diagonal’, were renamed after Russian literary figures such as Pushkin, Tel’man, and Gorkii. But as Wörster also points out, many streets and places were named after military figures from 1812, and also from the East Prussian campaign, including, for example, the renaming of Insterburg after the commander of the Third Belorussian Front, until his death on 18 February 1945, Chernyakhovskii (Wörster 1985, 237).

1378 The Lithuanian scholar Kazys Pakštas (1959; 1998) has written of a variety of sources that indicate that a sizeable Lithuanian minority had lived in Lithuanian Minor/Karalaučiaus Kraštas (the Lithuanian names for a large part of East Prussia) from the eleventh century until the beginning of World War II. However, it was not only for this reason that Pakštas believed that this territory ‘belonged’ to an independent Lithuania. He also argued that the modern Lithuanian nation was the closest ‘kin’ to the Prus tribe, and therefore the rightful inheritors of their land. Although Pakštas’ evidence was supposed to have been collected as part of the case for ceding East Prussia to an independent Lithuani, to be presented at a post-WWII peace conference, similar arguments were apparently used in Stalin’s first claims on the territory too. While Pakštas’ arguments have been generally accepted by some Lithuanian historians to support the idea that in the nineteenth century “a certain part of Lithuania, called Lithuania Minor, was ruled by Germans” (Samalavičius 1995, 126), others take a more nuanced view. For example, Zigmantas Kiaupa et al (2000) have noted that while ‘Lithuania Minor’ was an important for the production of Lithuanian language ‘printed materials’ and cultural figures, they argue that “it is hardly possible to agree with the old statement of historiography that Lithuanian self-consciousness and patriotic feelings in Lithuania Minor, which was part of Prussia, appeared earlier than in Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a state which was created and cherished by Lithuanians. Two parts of one nation, belonging to different states – the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Prussia – although connected by ethnic ties, lived their own social and political life, and developed independent notions of national culture” (Kiaupa et al 2000, 301). They continue by stating that “The boundary between the two parts of the Lithuanian nation [Minor and Major] was also drawn by the victorious Catholic Counter-Reformation in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Lutheranism, which had established itself in Prussia. In the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, cultural and economic ties between Lithuanian Major and Minor were weak. From neither side did such relations acquire even the slightest resemblance to state policy” (Kiaupa et al 2000, 281; 301-3). Of course, one could also mention that East Prussia had never been part of a modern Lithuanian state.

1379 According to Sharp, “before 1914, three-quarters of the goods exported from [Königsberg’s] port had been of Russian origin” (Sharp 1977-8, 162).

1380 Although there were representatives of all of the Soviet Republics in the first waves, 95% of them came from the Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian and Lithuanian Republics (Holtom 2003a, 91).

1381 Matthes, Eckhard: Ale Russe in Ostpreussen. Edition Tertium: Ostfildren, 1999. The Russian version is called Vostochnaya Prussiya glazami sovetskikh pereselentsev. Pervye gody Kaliningradskoi oblasti v vospominaniyakh i dokumentakh.(2002): St Petersburg: Bel’veder. A Polish edition was also apparently released in the autumn of 2000, and there were rumours that an English language version was to be published.

1382 According to Vladimir Abramov, it occupied first place in the RSFSR for suicides per 1,000 of the population (Abramov 1998, 25). While other figures are not cited, this case is also made in Oldberg (2000, 271); Samson (ed. 2000, 215).

1383 For information on ‘Bloody Sunday’ - the events of January 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania - see: Lieven (1994, 244-55); Krickus (1997, 136-64). Krickus also discusses the attempted ‘coup’ and responses (Krickus 1997, 181-90).

1384 In a debate on the European parliament report Report of the Committee of Foreign Affairs and Security on Kaliningrad (Königsberg), a Russian exclave in the Baltic region: situation and outlook from a European viewpoint, two German MEPs questioned the report’s suggestion that Kaliningrad’s status as a Russian territory should remain settled, going so far as to suggest that EU finances should be used to return the territory to Germany. According to the Official Journal of the European Communities – Annex no. 3-442 – Debates of the European Parliament 1993/4 Session Report of Proceedings from 7-11 February 1994 (Europe House: Strasbourg, 1994, 61), Schodruch and Grund both insinuated that the territory should return to Germany.

1385 For example, the former Lithuanian ambassador to America, Stasys Lozoraitis, announced during his 1992 Lithuanian presidential election campaign that he believed that Lithuania should “take control” of Kaliningrad (“Diplomat suggests that Lithuania…” 1992). And in November 1998, the leader of the Young Lithuanian Party and Seimas deputy, Stanislavas Buskevičius, announced that “only the Klaipėda region, one third of Lithuania Minor, joined Lithuania. (…) We got Vilnius and Klaipėda back. We will also get the Karalaučius (Kaliningrad) region back”. However, when the journalist reporting on this event interviewed the co-author of the speech, Saulius Peceliunas, Leader of the Democratic Party, he ‘laughingly’ stated “Nobody speaks about conquering Lithuania Minor by force. We live in the twentieth century. But we can get back Lithuania Minor in a cultural sense. There are about 20,000 Lithuanians there now and we must care about them and create conditions for cherishing Lithuanian culture there” (Qtd. in The Baltic Times, 1-13 January 1999, A6). However, the former chairman of the Lithuanian parliament (Seimas) Vytautus Landsbergis has made some of the most ambiguous statements on this issue. Richard Krickus has interpreted Landsbergis’ comments as calling for respecting the rights of the Lithuanian minority in Kaliningrad and a resolution of the ‘limbo’ status of the territory in international legal terms (Krickus 2002, 83). Indeed, in one report, Landsbergis was quoted as stating that “at present no-one in the world is disputing the [Kaliningrad] region’s status. In Lithuania, not even a minority but only isolated individuals [do this]”. However, his ‘suggestions’ for ‘decolonising’ and ‘demilitarising’, and supporting the creation of a fourth independent Baltic Republic have been interpreted in Moscow and Kaliningrad as a cause for concern.

1386 The Russian Ministry of Defence made strong ‘hints’ that the ‘nuclear avenue’ was a possible option in response to NATO membership for the Baltic States. See: ITAR-TASS News Agency, 8 and 12 June 1998. While Viktor Alksnis, a Russian State Duma (parliament) deputy, suggested that not only should Kaliningrad be used to stop the EU and NATO moving east, but that Russia should exercise its ‘rights’ to the Klaipeda region of Lithuania (Nezavisimaya gazeta 29 March 2001). While he cannot claim to represent the Kremlin, or the foreign-policy making community, they have played a significant role in setting the tone of current Russian foreign policy (Medvedev 1999).


Каталог: old -> Departments -> International relations
International relations -> Материалы для чтения
International relations -> Материалы для чтения the four freedoms as part of europeanization process: conditions and effectiveness of the eu impact
Departments -> Учебная программа дисциплина: Физическая культура Направления подготовки: 031300. 62 031600. 62
Departments -> Учебно-методический комплекс по дисциплине " финансы и кредит" Нижний Новгород 2004 Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета гоу нглу им. Н. А. Добролюбова
International relations -> Материалы для чтения
International relations -> Материалы для чтения
1   ...   71   72   73   74   75   76   77   78   ...   83