Материалы для чтения the four freedoms as part of europeanization process: conditions and effectiveness of the eu impact

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, Ole (1992), Regionalization in Europe and in the Baltic Sea Area, in Co-operation in the Baltic Sea Area. The Second Parliamentary Conference on Co-operation in the Baltic Sea Area. Report from a Conference arranged by the Nordic Council at Stortinget, Oslo, Norway, 22-24 April.

113 Joenniemi, Pertti (1995), Regionality: A Sovereign Principle of International Relations? In: Peaceful Changes in World Politics. Ed.by Heikki Patomaki. Tampere Peace Research Institute, Research Report N 71, pp. 337-374.

114 Scott, James Wesley (2002), Baltic Sea Regionalism, EU Geopolitics and Symbolic Geographies of Cooperation, Journal of Baltic Studies. Vol.XXXIII, N 2, summer.

115 Kivikari, Upro (1996), The Legacy of Hansa. The Baltic Economic Region. Helsinki: Otava Publishing Company Limited.

116 Balogh, Zoltan (2004), Implementation of New Regionalism in the CEECS. Paper presented at NISPAcee Conference in Vilnius, 13-15 May.

117 Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri. Op.cit. P.39.

118 Ibid. P.342.

119 Mette Sicard Filtenborg, Stefan Ganzle, Elizabeth Johansson. An Alternative Theoretical Approach to EU Foreign Policy. ‘Network Governance’ and the Case of the Northern Dimension Initiative, Cooperation and Conflict: Journal of the Nordic International Studies Association, vol.37 (4), p.392.

120 Pami Aalto. A European Geopolitical Subject in the Making? EU, Russia and the Kaliningrad Question, Geopolitics, vol.7, N 3, winter 2002, p.166.

121 Alexander Cooley and James Ron. The NGO Scramble. Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action, International Security, vol. 21, N 1, summer 2002. P.36.

122 Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri. Op.cit. P.36.

123 Brian Taylor. Law Enforcement and Civil Society in Russia. Paper presented at the conference “Post-Soviet (In)Securities: Theory and Practice”, Mershon Center, Ohio University, October 7-8, 2005. P.2.

124 Ernesto Laclau. Identity and Hegemony: the Role of Universality in the Constitution of Political Logic, in: Contingency, Hegemony, Universality. Contemporary Dialogues on the Left. Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Zizek. New York & London: Verso, 2000. P.49.

125 Timothy Mitchell, quoted in James Richter. State and Society Under Putin. Paper presented at the conference “Post-Soviet (In)Securities: Theory and Practice”, Mershon Center, Ohio University, October 7-8, 2005. P.3.

126 Nikolay Petrov. The development of civil society in the post-Soviet space: cases of Russia and Ukraine. Paper presented at the conference “Post-Soviet (In)Securities: Theory and Practice”, Mershon Center, Ohio University, October 7-8, 2005. P.2.

127 Nikolas Rose. Political Power Beyond the State: Problematics of Government, British Journal of Sociology, 1992, 43, 2, pp.172-205.

128 Hiski Haukkala. The Relevance of Norms and Values in the EU’s Russia Policy. A paper to be presented at the VII ICCESS World Congress in Berlin, 26 July 2005, p.3.

129 Remizov 2001a.

130 Stavrakakis 1999, p.79.

131 Kholmogorov 2002.

132 Shimov 2001.

133 Aalto 2004, p.10.

134 Lukianov 2004.

135 Neufeld 1995, p.81.

136 Foucault 1972.

137 Neumann 1998, p.223.

138 Joenniemi 2004, p.4.

139 V uzlakh … 2001.

140 Pavlovskii 2004.

141 Smith 1998, p.188.

142 Communication from the … 2004.

143 Karabeshkin and Wellmann 2004, p.7.

144 Iliyn 2003.

145 Kazin 2002.

146 Wennersten 1999, pp. 273-281.

147 Zamiatin 2001, p. 127.

148 Medvedev 1998, pp. 44-61.

149 Agamben 1998, p.56.

150 Schlogel 2003.

151 Morozov 2003b.

152 Wallace 2003, p.8.

153 RosBiznesKonsalting Agency, March 25, 2003, www.rbc.ru

154 Zamiatin 2004.

155 Schlegel 2003.

156 Bordachov 2004, p.2.

157 Hyndle and Kutysz 2002, p. 48.

158 Deleuze 1990, pp.226-227.

159 Zizek 1999, p.108.

160 Agamben 1998, p. 24.

161 Joenniemi 2005.

162 Rossiya i Evropa…

163 Sutela 2005, p.24.

164 Rasmussen 2005, p.19.

165 Stavrakakis 1999, p.79.

166 Morozov 2003a.

167 Rossiya kak Novaya Evropa…

168 Russkaya Evropa… 2004.

169 Krylov 2002.

170 Nifontov 2002.

171 Remizov 2001b.

172 Pereslegin 2004.

173 Chto takoe Evropa (What is Europe), http://udod.traditio.ru/euro.htm

174 Remizov 2001a.

175 Rossiya kak Novaya Evropa…

176 Karaganov 2004a.

177 Privalov 2004.

178 Vol’nov, Andrey (2004), Panskie ambitsii, Rossiiskie vesti, April 28 – May 11, http://www.rosvesty.ru/numbers/1724/europe/article_43.phtml

179 Bukharin 2001.

180 Kazin 2003.

181 Ibid.

182 Cichocki, Cichocki and Kowal 2002.

183 Bukharin 2004.

184 Strana.ru, October 10, 2004.

185 Nezavisimaya gazeta, November 17, 2004.

186 “Echo Moskvy” Radio web site, April 28, 2004, http://www.echo.msk.ru/interview/1.html

187 Center for Political Conjuncture web site, June 28, 2004, http://www.ancentr.ru/portal/printout2056.html

188 http://www.strana.ru/print/147360.html

189 Interview with Erhard Kromme, Izvestia, October 30, 2003, p.4.

190 Baev 2004.

191 Dugin 2003.

192 Ekho Moskvy Radio, April 28, 2004, http://www.echo.msk.ru/interview/1.html

193 Okara, Andrey. Kakaya Evropa nuzhna Rossii (What kind of Europe Russia needs?), http://nationalism.org/library/publicism/okara/okara-what-europe.htm

194 Zizek 1989, p.169.

195 Ibid, p.172.

196 Zizek 2002, p.10.

197 Ibid, p.170.

198 Ibid, p.170.

199 Munkler 1996.

200 The Zizek Reader 1999, p.21.

201 Author wishes to acknowledge financial and institutional support provided by Sodertorns University College (Stockholm), Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, and International Policy Fellows Program of the Open Society Institute (Budapest).

202 Pirjo Jukarainen. Norden is Dead – Long Live the Eastwards Faced Euro-North // Cooperation and Conflict, vol. 34, N 4, December 1999. P. 358.

203 New Nordic Agenda – follow-up to the report from the panel of Wise Men. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 2001. P. 20.

204 Ola Tunander. Norway, Sweden and Nordic Cooperation, in Security in the European North. From “Hard” to “Soft”. Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre at University of Lapland, and Olof Palme International Center, 1999. P.48.

205 Pertti Joenniemi. The European Union’s Northern Dimension: on the Introduction of a New Signifier. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Congress, Los Angeles, March 14-18, 2000. Pp. 5-8.

206 Pertti Joenniemi. The Northern Dimension: Allegiance or Revolt? In Security in the European North. From “Hard” to “Soft”. Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre at University of Lapland, and Olof Palme International Center, 1999. P. 75.

207 Pertti Joenniemi. The Europeanisation of Northerness… P.2.

208 Pertti Joenniemi. The Northern Dimension: Allegiance or Revolt? In Security in the European North. From “Hard” to “Soft”. Edited by Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. Arctic Centre at University of Lapland, and Olof Palme International Center, 1999. P. 77.

209 Mikko Majander. Op.cit.

210 Klaus Schultze. Natsional’naia identichnost’ stran Baltii v kontexte ikh vstuplenia v ES (National Identities of the Baltic Countries in the Context of Their Accession to EU) // Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie v perekhodnikh ekonomikakh. Open Society Institute: LGI Program. Budapest, January 2002, p.17.

211 Tom Schumacher. The Emergence of the New Nordic Co-operation. Helsinki: DUPI Working Paper 2000/6. P.10.

212 Hiski Haukkala. Two Reluctant Regionalizers? The European Union and Russia in Europe’s North. Working Paper 32 (2001). The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Programme on the Northern Dimension of the CFSP. P. 20.

213 The Northern Dimension, a Subregional Contribution. Report by the BSSSC ad-hoc Working Group on Northern Dimension, October 1999, at http://www.bsssc.com/pages/documents/documents_nor.htm

214 Christopher S.Browning. The Region-Building Approach Revisited: the Continuing Othering of Russia in Discourses of Region-Building in the European North, at http://www.copri.dk

215 Pami Aalto. Structural Geopolitics in Europe. Constructing Geopolitical Subjectivity for the EU and Russia. COPRI Working Paper 22/2001. Pp. 15,20.

216 Hans Mouritzen. Security Communities in the Baltic Sea Region: Real and Imagined // Security Dialogue, Volume 32, Number 3, September 2001. P. 304.

217 Sergei Medvedev. Glenn Gould, Finland, Russia and the North // International Politics. Vol. 38, N 1, March 2001. P. 92.

218 Ole Waever. Culture and Identity in the Baltic Sea Region. Centre for Peace and Conflict Research, Copenhagen. Working paper 18/1990. P.17.

219 Jerel A.Rosati. The Power of Human Cognition in the Study of World Politics // International Studies Review. Vol. 2-3, issue 3, fall 2000. P. 53.

220 Pertti Joenniemi. The Europeanisation of Northerness. On the Changing Co-ordinates of Political Space. Paper presented at the 2nd Russian Congress on Political Regionality. Nizhny Novgorod, September 17-19, 1999. P.5.

221 Branislav Gosovic. Global Intellectual Hegemony and the International Development Agenda // International Social Science Journal, N 166, December 2000.

222 Mikko Majander. The Paradoxes of Finlandization, in Northern Dimensions. Yearbook. The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 1999. P. 91.

223 Uffe Ostergard. The Nordic Countries in the Baltic Region, in Neo-nationalism or Regionality. The Restructuring of Political Space Around the Baltic Rim. Edited by Pertti Joenniemi. Aaland Islands’ Peace Research Institute and COPRI, 1998. P. 49.

224 Christopher S.Browning. The Region-Building Approach Revisited: the Continuing Othering of Russia in Discourses of Region-Building in the European North, at http://www.copri.dk

225 Pertti Joenniemi. Beyond Sovereignty: Russia’s Regionalization and Co-operation in Europe’s North. Paper presented at the Conference in the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research, ETH Zurich, July 2001. P. 21.

226 Viacheslav Morozov. The Baltic States in Russian Foreign Policy Discourse: Can Russia Become a Baltic Country? at http://www.copri.dk

227 Jochen Prantl. Security and Stability in Northern Europe – a Threat Assessment. Programme on the Northern Dimension of the CFSP, April 2000.

228 Yurii Arutiunov. Severnoe izmerenie (Northern Dimension), in Russia and Central Europe in the New Geopolitical Realities. Proceedings of the III International Scientific Conference. Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, and Institute of International Economic and Political Studies, 2000. P. 259.

229 Ingmar Oldberg. Kaliningrad: Russian exclave, European enclave. FOI Scientific Report, FOI-R-0134-SE, June 2001. P. 69.

230 Alexander Sergounin. Russia and the European Union: the Case of Kaliningrad. Program on New Approaches to Russian Security Policy Memo Series. Edited by Erin Powers. Memo N 172. PONARS, 2000. P.1.

231 Alexander Sergounin. Op.cit. P.5.

232 Tuomas Forsberg. Soft means to hard security: Finland and the Northern Dimension of the European Union, in Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Edited by Pertti Joenniemi and Jevgenia Viktorova. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. P.95.

233 Press release of the government of the Russian Federation, March 6, 2002, at http://www.ln.mid.ru

234 http://www.strana.ru/print/118628.html

235 Jevgenia Viktorova. Borders, regions, and security: on an intersection, in Regional Dimensions of Security in Border Areas of Northern and Eastern Europe. Tartu: Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation, 2001. P. 23.

236 http://www.strana.ru/print/987507689.html

237 Pertti Joenniemi. The European Union’s Northern Dimension: on the Introduction of a New Signifier. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Congress, Los Angeles, March 14-18, 2000. P.2.

238 Izvestia, August 31, 2000. P.6.

239 http://www.academy-go.ru/Site/RussiaEC/Kaliningrad/Chichkin.html

240 Charles Silva. Russia and the EU. How Can the Process of Rapprochement be Furthered? Report from the EU-Russia Forum for Foreign & Security Policy, Moscow, 15 February 2001.

241 http://regions.ng.ru/printed/far/2001-05-29/6_lock.html

242 “Itogi”, May 22, 2001. P. 21.

243 http://www.academy-go.ru/Site/RussiaEC/Kaliningrad/Bespor.html

244 Typical is the title “Bacteria launch offensive”, at http://regions.ng.ru/printed/far/2001-03-13/2_bacteria.html

245 http://gov.kaliningrad.ru/news.php3?uid=1704200101

246 Nicola Catellani. Short and Long-Term Dynamics in the EU’s Northern Dimension, at www.copri.dk

247 Bjorn T.Asheim. Learning regions as development coalitions // Concepts and Transformation. Vol. 6, N 1, 2001.

248 Olav F.Knudsen. Small States, Latent and Extant: Towards a General Approach. Paper presented at the panel “Legitimacy and Violence: Globalization and the Displacement of the State”, Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, New Orleans, March 27, 2002. P.4.

249 Alexander Nazarov. Nas obiediniaet Sever (This is the North Which Unites Us) // Parlamentskaya gazeta, 10.07.2002

250 Heleniak, Timothy. Out-Migration and Depopulation of the Russian North During the 1990s // Post-Soviet Geography and Economics. Vol. 40, N 9, 1999

251 Gladkii, Yu.N., Chistobaev, A.I. Osnovy regional’noi politiki (Foundations of Regional Policy). St.Petersburg, V.Mikhailov Publishers, 1998. P. 205.

252 Salmin, A.M. Dezintegratsia Rossii? (Russia’s Disintegration?). Moscow: Council of Defense and Security Policy, «Strategy for Russia» Program, at http://www.svop.ru/doklad05.htm

253 http://www.akm.ru/rus/gosinfo/progr_gov/1_9.stm

254 Golubchik, Sergei. Arkticheskii vektor Rossii (Arctic Vector of Russia), at http://regions.ng.ru/printed/gubern/2000-06-27/1_arctic_vector.html

255 Wendy Larner, William Walters. The political rationality of „new regionalism”: toward a genealogy of the region // Theory and Society. Renewal and Critique in Social Theory. Vol. 31/3, June 2002. P. 411.

256 Stella Ladi. Globalization and Policy Transfer: The Secrets of Success and the Realities of Failure. Paper presented in the Hellenic Social Policy Association Conference ”Social Policy in Grece and the EU”, University of Thrace, May 2001.

257 See, for example: Risks of Soft Security: Priority Problems of the Baltic Sea Region. Proceedings of the International Academic Conference held at the School of International Relations of the St.Petersburg State University, October 4-6, 2001. Edited by Stanislav Tkachenko. St.Petersburg, 2002.

258 Publichnaya politika v sfere miagkoi bezopasnosti: Baltiiskoe izmerenie (Public Policy in Soft Security Sphere: the Baltic Dimension). St.Petersburg: Strategia Center, 2003.

259 Golotiuk, Yurii. Poliarnye mirazhi Rossii (Russia’s Arctic mirages) // Politbiuro, April 21, 2003. Pp. 88-91.

260 The EU and Kaliningrad. Communication from the Commission to the Council. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 17.01.2001, COM(2001)26 final.

261 Smirnov, A. K itogam mezhdunarodnoi investitsionnoi konferentsii «Vozmozhnosti regionov Severa-97» (On the outcomes of international investment conference «Opportunities of North’s regions – 1997»), at http://www.ln.mid.ru

262 Bartosz Cichocki, Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz, Andrzej Wilk. The Kaliningrad Oblast in the Context of EU Enlargement // CES Studies. Warsaw: Center for Eastern European Studies, July 2001. P. 54.

263 http://www.enet.ru/baltia/~b1010820.html

264 Viktor Tereshkin. The Nikitin Case Through the Eyes of the Acquitting Judge // Eastern European Constitutional Review. Vol.9, N 4, Fall 2000.

265 Spatial Planning for Sustainable Development in the Baltic Sea Region. A VASAB 2010 Contribution to Baltic 21, at http://www.ee/baltic21/publicat/R9.htm

266 http://www.csr-nw.ru/strategy.php

267 I would like to express my thanks for the support of COPRI and the International Policy Fellows Program of the Open Society Institute (Budapest) which made possible the writing of this paper. My special thanks to Pertti Joenniemi and Christopher Browning for thoughtful and immensely valuable comments on an earlier version of this text.

268 Chistiakov, Anton. The Ethno-Cultural Situation in Ingermanland at the End of the 20th century, in: Russia and the Baltic States: Political Relations, National Identity and Social Thought in XVIII-XX Centuries. Samara, 2001. pp. 263-267.

269 Blomberg, Jaakko. The EU’s Role in Northern Europe. In: The Baltic Sea Region. Building an Inclusive System of Security and Cooperation. The Third Annual Stockholm Conference on Baltic Sea Security and Cooperation. The Embassy of the United States of America, the Swedish Institute of International Affairs, and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. November 19, 1988. p. 25.

270 http://www.eurasia.msk.ru/programs/programs_list/nw_russia.htm

271 Cronberg, Tarja. Euroregio Karelia. In Search for a Relevant Space for Action. Paper presented at COPRI Seminar, May 2002.

272 Lash, Scott. Discourse or Figure? Postmodernism as a ’Regime of Signification’ // Theory. Culture. Society. Vol. 5, N 2-3, June 1988. P.311.
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